Different Types of Testing Equipments Used in Textile Industry

Different Types of Testing Equipments Used in Textile Industry
Md. Didarul Islam1 & Md. Talha2
Dept. of Textile Engineering
BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology (BUFT), Dhaka
Email: 181-175-801@buft.edu.bd1 & tayef100@gmail.com2
 

Introduction:
The process to determine the properties of different kinds of substance is called testing. Testing is an important segment of the textile industry. We can easily detect the faults of machinery and materials during test of textiles. Besides, textile testing needs to assure compliance with changing governmental safety regulations and to meet increasing consumer demand for high-quality textiles and apparel.

Textile testing equipments
Fig: Textile testing equipments
Textile testing allows companies, consumer groups and the government to make sure textiles are safe, of good quality, and that the customer is getting what they are paying for. Textile products are made around the world, and sent to markets around the world. Testing ensures that something harmful or illegal isn't slipping through the regulatory cracks.

Fiber Testing:
Any substance, natural or manufactured with a high length to width ratio and with suitable characteristics for being processed into fabric; the smallest component hair like in nature that can be separated from a fabric.

Fiber characteristics:
  1. Identification
  2. Textile fiber properties
  3. Fiber fineness
  4. Fiber Length
Fiber Testing Method:

1. Microscope:
It used for identification of textile fiber.

Anatomy of a microscope
Fig: Anatomy of a microscope
Specification:
  • Machine Name: Micros
  • Model: MC-50 series
  • Magnification Range: 40x – 100x  
  • No. of Objective lens: 4
Working Procedure:
  • Take some specimen of different types of fiber.
  • Microscope has 4 lens and magnifying capacity was 40x -1000x. By 100x magnifying lens we see the longitudinal view of fibers.
  • Keep the fiber on slide of glass and put under the objective lens
  • Then adjust the lens by our needs to see microscope view of fibers by Eyepiece.
  • Then we identify the specimen fiber through cross-sectional and longitudinal view of different fibers
Description:

2. Burning test:
Burning test is one of the most popular tests of fiber. Different types of fibers show different characteristics in the burning test. So, on the basis of this behavior we can identify fiber and fabric composition as well.

Fiber burning test
Fig: Fiber burning test
Working Procedure:
  • First of all, the given sample should be cut into pieces of different fibers.
  • Then the cut fabric will be clamped in the tweezer and will be brought towards the candle fire.
  • The actions and reactions of fabric must be noted down.
Description:
buring test table

3. Chemical solubility test for fiber identification:
Fiber can be identified by physical test, chemical test, burning test, density test and many more test, but by chemical solubility test properly understand which fiber mixed on fabric.

Chemical solubility test
Fig: Chemical solubility test
Working Procedure:
  • Keep the solution in a beaker by Pipette and put that fabric sample in the beaker.
  • After few minutes keep that sample and wash out by water, then put that fabric in oven dryer for dry
  • Measure that sample and noted down
  • Then we see one of the fiber loop formation burned and another fiber loop formation still on that fabric
  • After calculate we understand the compound fabric 
Description:

4. Air flow method of fiber fineness measurement:
In this method, fiber fineness is measured by air flow. If large amount of air is blown, the fiber will be coarse and if small amount of air is blown, the fiber will be fine.
Fiber fineness tester
Fig: Fiber fineness tester
Specification:
  • Brand: MAG
  • Instrument name: Fibro Mic XT
  • Company name: MAG Solvics private Ltd
  • Origin: India
  • Year of origin: 2013
Working Procedure:
  • 4 gm of sample is taken and balanced properly
  • The sample is opened very well and fiber are separated and randomized individually
  • The sample placed into the compression chamber.
  • The fiber compression plunger is inserted and locked in its place by twisting the foot pedal is operate to allow air inside
  • The take the reading on the machine and calculated to microniare unit.
5. Comb sorter:
It is used to determine the length of fiber. A numerical sample of the fibers is taken and the fibers are classified by lengths. They are then divided into length groups and weighed.

Comb Sorter
Fig: Comb sorter
Specification:
  • Brand: FLY
  • Instrument name:- Comb Sorters Y131
  • Distance between combs:- 10mm
  • Length of comb:- 150mm
  • Height of comb teeth:- 15mm
  • Number of comb:- the upper comb-5 and the low comb-31
  • Thickness of comb:- 2.5mm
  • Method of comb falling:- spring contact control
  • Dimension:- 390mm×295mm×292mm(L×W×H)
  • Weight:- 10kg
Working procedure:
  • A bundle of fibers prepared by one of the zoning methods is straightened by hand and pressed into the lower set of combs is impaled in the combs with the ends of fibers protruding, as illustrated in the left-hand side
  • The end of the bundle is straightened by gripping the ends of the outermost fibers with a wide clamp and withdrawing them a few at a time.
  • The whole sample is then transferred in this way, a few fibers at a time, to position B at the other end of the combs and placed there so that the fiber ends coincide with the first comb.
  • The sample is pressed down into the bottom combs and the top combs are then lowered onto the sample.
  • The rear combs are moved out of the way one at a time until the ends of the longest fibers are exposed.
  • The exposed fibers are then removed by the grip and laid on a black velvet pad. The next comb is then removed, so exposing the fibers which constitute the next length group and these are removed and laid next to the first set of fibers, making sure that all the fibers are laid with a common base line.
  • Then trace the outline of the fiber array prepared on a sheet of translucent paper.
Yarn Testing:
In the manufacture of raw materials, yarn occupies a mid-range role. Therefore yarn results are important both for the quality assessment of raw material and to the quality control of the manufactured cloth.

Yarn characteristics:
Yarn testing machine:

1. Beesley’s Balance:
Beesley Balance may be a laboratory testing machine which is employed to live the yarn count directly during a 1 cm sq. sample material. It is a weighing scale which is meant on an aluminum shaft with two crystal bearing. The aluminum beam comprises of stainless-steel hooks on each side to put the yarn one by one on one end and handy weight on another end. The entire assembly of Beesley balance is meant on a metal box with a transparent window to look at the test sample easily

Beesley Balance
Fig: Beesley Balance
Specification:
  • Brand: MAG
  • Instrument name: Fabycount
  • Company name: MAG-Solvics private Ltd.
  • Origin: India
  • Year of origin: 2016
Working procedure:
  • At first collect denim sample.
  • In this sample, the warp direction yarn color is blue and weft direction yarn color is white. First of all, 12 yarn withdrawn in warp direction from that fabric. Again 12 yarn withdrawn in weft direction.
  • Marking all withdrawn yarn by template and cut them.
  • Now placed that yarn in hook until the pointer comes in level with the datum line.
  • At that stage the threads are taken out and counted which givers directly the count of yarn taken for testing.
2. Twist tester:
Twist is the measure of the spiral turns given to a yarn in order to hold the constituent fibers on thread together.

Twist tester
Fig: Twist tester
There are two types of twist direction as;
  1. S-twist
  2. Z-twist
You may also like: Yarn Twist | Twisting Process of Yarn | Mechanism of Twist Insertion to the Strand
 
Specification:
  • Brand: MAG
  • Instrument name: Mec Twist
  • Company name: MAG Solvics Private Ltd.
  • Origin: India
Working procedure:
  • At first, we have to draw the yarn through the yarn tensioner to yarn Guide.
  • The yarn is then set with the fixed jaw and then we have to untwist the yarn with the help of handle, that single yarn was in Z-twist. So, when the yarn is untwisting it is in S-twist.
  • The single yarn untwist re-twist meters is used and number of twists per-inch is determined tram control reading.
3. Lea strength tester:
A lea strength tester measures the strength of 1 lea yarn. One lea means 120 yards. Strength may be a measure of the steady force necessary to interrupt a cloth and is measured in pound. The m/c works in constant rate of extension. Assuming the specimen to be extensible and an absence of any dynamic effects.

lea strength tester
Fig: Lea strength tester
Specification:
  • Brand: MAG
  • Instrument name: Mechtretch XT
  • Company name: MAG Solvics private Ltd
  • Origin: India
Working procedure:
  • At first one lea cotton yarn is measured by wrap reel and during this way 20 samples are taken for testing.
  • Now, the primary sample is fixed with the upper jawbone J1 and therefore the mandible J2.
  • The machine is started and observed the dial until the sample is torn out.
  • When the sample is torn out the m/c is stopped and therefore the reading is taken.
  • By this manner the others’ reading are taken.
  • Then all the samples are weighted and counts are calculated.
  • C.S.P of the all samples are calculated.
  • At last average and CV% are calculated.
4. USTER Tester-5:
The instrument used to assess or calculate the evenness of the yarn (U%), co-effectiveness of the variance weight (CVm,%), imperfection index (IPI) and thick and thin yarn neps, roving, sliver is the equality test. The Uster equality assessment method can remove the effect of humans on the test results and can calculate the unevenness of yarns easily and objectively so that it is widely applied.

USTER tester-5
Fig: USTER tester-5
Feature of USTER tester:
  • Intermingling measurement: The Optical Sensor OM counts intermingling per meter at a testing speed of 800m/min. This feature helps to stop variations in fabric appearance.
  • Knowledge Based System: Built-in expert knowledge quickly traces the causes of quality problems on the textile machine. The KBS requires no inputs or extra settings from the machine supplier.
  • Touchscreen operation: An intuitive graphical interface simplifies operation, even for untrained personnel. It means users can specialize in test results, guaranteeing higher efficiency and optimum user satisfaction
You may also like:
Uster Evenness Tester or Uster Tester-5 | Principle of Uster Tester | Advantages/Disadvantages of Uster Evenness Tester | Uster Statistics
 
Principle of USTER Evenness Tester:
Raw material also as spinning problem are often detected by the measurement of yarn unevenness which is completed by USTER evenness tester or USTER tester-5. the standard parameter is decided by a capacitive sensor. during this case the yarn, roving or sliver is skilled the electrical field of a measuring capacitor. Mass variation of the fabric causes the disturbance of the electrical field which are converted into electric signal. Which is proportional to the mass variation of the fabric.
  • Module: Basic Sensor,
  • Year: 2008,
  • Device: Conveyor Module, Foreign Matter Module, Hairiness Module, With Computer, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse
5. Tension meter:
The tension in the moving yarn is very important to determine. This method calculates the load during yarn processing during the spin and winding cycle and is observed during the warping cycle. Yarn should be tested by the tension meter to be extremely sensitive to stress. When the measurement conditions are replicated, the instruments are very delicate, provide reproductive and reliable reading; therefore the right tension meter range should be chosen.

Yarn tension meter
Fig: Yarn tension meter
Specification:
  • Size of the Instrument: 182 mm x 36 mm x 26 mm
  • Load Capacity: 300 gm., 0.1gm Accuracy.
  • Weight: 112 gm.
  • Battery: LR 44, Button cell
Process:
  • Yarn tension meter is used to measure the tension of yarn when it under goes winding process.
  • Warp and weft yarn tension is also measured while weaving.
6. USTER ZWEIGLE friction tester 5:
In textile industries, friction has an important role to play and everywhere friction can be seen. Fibre-to-fibre friction, spinning friction, winding, weaving and knitting between yarn and yarn guidelines. Yarn friction is significant in relation to the yarn's running behavior.

USTER ® ZWEIGLE FRICTION TESTER 5
Fig: USTER ® ZWEIGLE FRICTION TESTER 5
Feature of the machine:
The crucial aspect of the USTER ® ZWEIGLE FRICTION TESTER 5 is its two-wheel beam and sensor design. It allows for immediate adjustment of differences in tension in the yarn box. A ZERO force area is created between two rollers during measurement. There is also a yarn tensioner.

Principle of this machine:
The theory of this unit is that the yarn is pushed horizontally by the disk tensioner according to its power. Across both plates the yarn moves. The upper disk is constantly forced to generate a given strength on the yarn. The powers F1 and F2 are able to determine the coefficient of friction. It is the friction between fabric and metal. The yarn is moved in one direction at 200 meters a minute and in a different direction. Both rollers are very sensitive and each small lateral movement can be detected individually in both directions.Since the force F1 applied on the yarn is known and the force F2 is measured & the yarn friction can be calculated

Fabric Testing:
Textile fabrics are manufactured for several different end uses, each of which has different performance requirements. The chemical and physical structures of textile fabric determine how it'll perform, and ultimately whether it's acceptable for a specific use. Fabric testing plays an important role in gauging product quality, assuring regulatory compliance and assessing the performance of textile materials. It provides information about the physical or structural properties and therefore the performance properties of the fabrics.

Fabric Characteristics:
  • Identification of fabric weight
  • Resistance of fabric to friction
  • Rubbing fastness on fabric color
  • Water repellency of fabric
  • Color fastness to sweat
  • Color fastness to light
  • Creases resistance of fabric
  • Fabric strength
Fabric testing machine:

1. GSM Cutter:
GSM means gram per square meter, and the weight of the textile which includes knit, woven and non-woven is the designation, as the name implies. It's a basic tool used to cut a tissue sample for the measurement of the gsm of the textile. The measurement of the fabric is 11.2 cm in diameter. The sample shall be measured and computed for GSM after cutting

GSM cutter
Fig: GSM cutter
Specification:
  • Diameter of sample cut is 113 mm
  • Area of Sample cut is 100 cm2
  • Catch lock is provided for safety.
  • Diamond shape knurling on bottom for proper grip to the fabric.
  • 2 Nos. Special quality GSM pad is proved for support while cutting.
  • Machine is equipped with 4 nos. of replaceable German Blade, and 4 Nos. (1 Set) extra blade is supplied with machine.
  • One Screw Driver is supplied for Opening/Tilting of blades.
  • Movement of Hand Wheel is 1/4 round to cut a sample.
Working Procedure:
  • The woven, knit, denim fabric with the GSM cutter should be cut at first.
  • The textiles are grosser, and fabrics are completely more coarse than the tissues. We use scissors here to cut the tissue
  • Maintain the weight of the tissue in the electric balance machine after completely cutting the tissue.
2. Pilling Tester:
Abrasion resistance is referred to as resistance to friction of cloth. Pilling is a fabric defect that can be seen as a small ball of fiber or group of fibers that are secured by one or more fibers on the surface of the fabric. During wear and washing the pills are made, which means that the friction forces influence the materials during use. Abrasion and pilling of fabric results from the friction forces.

Pilling tester
Fig: Pilling tester
Specification:
  • Box QuantityType A: 2 box/ Type B: 4 boxes
  • Internal dimensions: 23 x 23 x 23 cm
  • Testing speed: 60 rpm
  • Specimen size: 10 cm x 12 cm
  • Rubber tubeDiameter: Ø31 x 150 mm
  • Thickness: 3 mm
  • Weight: 50 ± 2g
  • Hardness: 42 ± 5 degree, 4 tubes per box
  • Dimension: 80 x 50 x 60 cm
  • Weight: 60 kg
Working Procedure:
  • At first cut the material into 4 pieces consistent with the measurement of the instrument.
  • Weigh 2 pieces of cloth samples which is employed for abrasion, another 2 pieces for pilling test.
  • Now place these samples within the instrument under a particular load as supplied within the instrument.
  • Now start the machine and observe the counter of abrasion no.
  • After complete 50000 cycles stop the machine. Then start assessment of cloth.
3. Crock meter:
Crock meter is used to determine by abrasion process the discoloration of the teared cloth or teared leather. This test equipment is designed to monitor the rubbing color speed of any textile material. The amount of color transferred from one fabric to another is determined. The product is mostly used for textiles, such as teared, printed or coloured fabrics. The test is performed by rubbing the sample constantly against an undyed sample. The transferred color is then tested for a predefined gray size and the score is accordingly allocated. This test is done on two different stages of the fabric, once in the dry state and again repeated when wet.

Crock meter
Fig: Crock meter
Specification:
  • Brand: SDL
  • Company Name:SDL International Ltd.
  • Origin:UK
  • Load:9N
  • Abrasion speed: 60rpm
  • Counter: LCD display 0~99,999,99
  • Dimension: 43×45×52 cm
  • Weight (approx.): 47kg
Working procedure:
  • First we take the sample
  • Then the material is placed on the sandpaper
  • Pinned specimen holder is employed to fixed the material
  • After that crocking (rubbing) cloth is about 3×5 cm has settled with rubbing finger by spring clip
  • Loading unit (9 N) is applied put the finger pinned the operating handle is operated by using of hand
  • We give 10 cycle stocks the direction of each cycle stock is 1 sec
  • The sample is then collected of gray compound
  • Cloth is collected and scale-compounded
5. Spray tester:
It is testing equipment which is employed to check the water repellency of a cloth sample. For testing a little shower of water is sprayed over the material which is kept at a particular angle. From there the quantity of water retained and soaked on the material is measured and compared from a predefined rating chart which is then graded accordingly.

Spray tester
Fig: Spray tester
Specification:
  • Model: AG20
  • Brand: AVENO
  • Origin: China
  • Load Time: 10-20 days
  • Port: Xiamen port
Working Procedure:
  • The sample fabric is mounted on the tambour and glued on the instrument at 45oC
  • Now the beaker is crammed with 250 cc water and poured on the funnel.
  • The water is showered through spray nozzle on the material.
  • After spraying has finished the sample holder is removed and therefore the surplus water removed by tapping the frame 6 times against a solid object, with the face of the sample facing the solid object.
  • The water repellency is assessed from the spray rating chart.
  • 5 tests should be made and therefore the nearest rating assigned to every, since no interpolation is allowed, i.e. a rating for a specimen can't be 75.
  • The mean of the 5 ratings is taken because the result.
6. Perspirometer:
Perspiration is usually liable for the change in color of the material. It’s testing equipment which is employed to work out color fastness of dyed or printed fabric against perspiration thanks to water, sea water etc. and sublimations during storage. it's carried on by exposing the material sample to the action of the both acidic and alkaline medium during a controlled temperature and pressure alongside an undyed sample.

Perspirometer
Fig: Perspirometer
Specification:
  • Frame Construction: Stainless steel
  • Load on the Test Specimen: 5 kg.
  • Size of Test Specimen: 100 mm x 40 mm
  • Size of Acrylic Separator Plates: 115 mm x 60 mm
  • Number of Separator Plates: 21 Nos.
  • Dimensions of the Unit: 225 mm (L) x 72 mm (W) x 182 mm (H)
  • Net weight of the Unit: 8.3kg
Working procedure:
  • The perspirometer consists of variety of acrylic plates and which may be kept in suitable loading frame.
  • The loading frame consists of two steel plates between which the acrylic plates placed.
  • The test specimen are stitched between suitable white cloth pieces and dipped in either alkaline or acidic test solutions.
  • The composite sample is placed in between any two acrylic plates.
  • A number of test specimens are often loaded simultaneously between different sets of acrylic plates by stacking them one above the opposite .
  • Loading is completed by keeping a typical dead weight on top of the upper plate assembly, which consists of two parallel plates separated by suitable compensating springs.
  • The guide rod attached to top plate of this assembly is locked while under load and therefore the load removed.
  • The springs catch up on subsequent variations in load thanks to variation in thickness of the test specimens on drying The test is sustained for the required time under the specified condition of temperature.
  • After this the samples are faraway from the frame and dried.
  • The degree of staining of the while pieces of cloths and alter in color of the test specimens are evaluated using grey scales and compared against standard rating cards.
7. Color fastness to light:
Light fastness or color fastness to light is that the resistance of the dyes or pigments used for coloration to tinting or change in color thanks to exposure in direct sunlight or any artificial light . Different end uses of cloth would require different levels of fastness towards the sunshine

Light fastness tester
Fig: Light fastness tester
Specification:
  • Model: Light Fastness Tester GT-D02A-1
  • Chamber Temperature: 25-55℃; Resolution: 0.1℃
  • Chamber Humidity: Light Cycle: 10-70% RH; Resolution: 0.1RH%, Dark Cycle: 30-95% RH; Resolution: 0.1RH%
  • BST: 40-85℃; Accuracy: ±1℃; Resolution: 0.1℃
  • BPT (Option): 40-80℃, Accuracy:±2℃; Resolution: 0.1℃
  • Time Control Range: ≤10000h
  • Irradiance Control Range: 0.80-1.20W/m²@420nm (Option: 340nm, 420nm, 300-400nm or 280-800nm), Accuracy: ±0.02W/m²@420nm. Digital setting, Closed-Loop Automatic Compensation
  • Xenon Arc Lamp Rated Power: 2500W
  • Sample Holder Rotation Speed: 2-7 rpm
  • Sample Holders Capacity: ISO: 135×45mm 12pcs
  • Or AATCC: 145×70mm 6pcs
  • Timing of Each Sample Holder, Respectively: ≤10000h
  • Light Period: ≤1000h
  • Spray Period: ≤1000h
  • Power: AC220V ±10% 50Hz 6.5KW .
  • Rated Power: 3.3KW
  • Dimension: 920×650×1680mm
  • Weight: 180kg
Working procedure:
The testing is completed step by step. Following step is maintained during measure the colour fatness to light.
  • Cut the test specimens consistent with the 1*4.5 cm wise and attached with the specimen holder.
  • Then Cut the Blue scale sample consistent with the 1*4.5 cm wise and attached with another specimen holder
  • Then the holder set in to the Microsol light fastness tester.
  • The humidity is typically kept at 40±5 R.H% and 30°c temperature
  • Then the experiment continued at 72 hours consistent with the buyer’s requirement.
  • After 72 hours later the specimen taken from the sunshine fastness tester
  • Then the test specimen compares with the Blue scale
8. Crease Recovery Tester:
Crease may be a fold in fabric introduced unintentionally at some stages of processing. Crease or crushing of textile material may be a complex effect involving tensile, compressive, flexing and torsional stresses. Crease recovery may be a fabric property which indicates the power of cloth to travel back to its original position after creasing.

Crease recovery tester
Fig: Crease recovery tester
Specification:
  • Brand: James Heal
  • Company Name: James Heal Private Ltd.
  • Origin: UK
  • Loading Device (10N and 19.63N weights)
  • Specimen Tweezers (Metal)
  • Specimen Tweezers (Plastic)
  • Specimen Template 40 x 15mm
  • Specimen Template 50 x 25mm
  • Pack (25 sheets 100 x 150mm) Paper Tissue
Working Procedure:
  • Sample of 2 inch long by 1 inch wide is cut off from the fabrics.
  • It is carefully pulled up by folding it in half between two glass plates with an added weight of 2 kg.
  • Remove the weight and transfer the specimen to the fabrics onto the instrument after one minute and allow the fabric to recover from the slit.
  • The instrument's dial is rotated as it recovers to maintain its free edge in line with the edge of the knife.
  • The recovery angle in degrees is normally read in the engraved scale at the end of the time allowed for recovery.
  • Warp and weft way recovery are reported separately to the closest degree from the mean values of ten tests in each direction
9. Bursting strength tester:
This test is used to assess the strength of any fabric as a general guide. The sample is mounted in a mold in which pressure from the bottom of the fabric is applied that explodes after its threshold level. If a sample bursts, it records parameters such as speed, length and severity. In kPa, bursting force is usually quoted.

Fabric bursting strength tester
Fig: Fabric bursting strength tester
Specification:
  • Capacity: 0 ~ 100 kg/cm² Settable
  • Resolution: 0.01 kg/cm²
  • Unit: kg/cm², KPa, psi, or defined by customer
  • Gripping pressure: 5kg/cm², adjustable
  • Air source: min.6kg/cm² (prepared by customer)
  • Dimension: 56 x 47 x 55 cm
  • Weight: 113kg
  • Power: 1∮, AC 220V, 3A
Working procedure:
  • Turn on the facility, activate the facility switch indicator light.
  • The power of about 30 seconds after the display automatically into the test state, that is, the display of the 0, the display is not any longer beating.
  • Check oil thimble is locked, if there's no lock necessary to lock it; check the air leaks, if the leak source must be adjusted
  • Good square test.
  • Press the clear, to make sure that the display is 0, then press the key.
  • When everything is prepared, press the motor start button, the cylinder down on the test sample, pressurized motor automatic operation pressure after 5 seconds.
  • When the test piece is broken, the utmost pressure value is displayed on the monitor, and therefore the instrument cylinder will rise automatically.
  • Do not close up the facility switch.
  • When the utmost value is retained, press the function key twice, save the utmost value, consistent with the subsequent print key, print out the test value. Note: if you would like to force the worth of the unit conversion, press the unit key are often converted.
  • Take the test piece after the cylinder return
Conclusion:
In each export-oriented industry department, TTQC is very important work or process. Purchasers don't want quantity but consistency. Quality of each content is preserved in every textile industry department. Because the quality of one material depends on the quality of another. If eligible fiber is input, for instance, good yarn will be output.
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant, entrepreneur, blogger and researcher on online business promotion. He is working as a consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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