Surgical Mask: Types, Manufacturing Process and Uses in Coronavirus

Introduction:
I know you have a lot of question about mask. Either it protects us from airborne diseases, or it just protect us from pollution. Which surgical mask should I buy or there are many things to know? We will find out everything in this article.

What is surgical mask?
This thing is also known as procedure mask, medical mask but most commonly known as face mask. This kind of mask are widely used by the health professionals during surgery. In Paris surgical mask first use was recorded in 1897. It was used by French surgeon Paul Berger. These masks are designed to catch microorganisms shed in liquid droplets and aerosols from the wearer's mouth and nose. But we shouldn’t be confused between surgical mask and respirator. This mask is not designed to inhale you from airborne bacteria or virus particles. This are less effective than respirators.

surgical mask
Fig: Surgical mask
Different types of surgical mask:
Not every mask protects us from everything. There are 4 classification depending on its protection level. They are:

1. Minimum protection:
This face mask is made for minimum protection. This are for short procedures and exams. This do not include fluid, spray or aerosol.

2. level 1:
This mask is advance then the previous one. This often offer loops. This are standard for surgical and procedural application. This thing has a barrier for 80mmHg fluid. This thing is used when the risk is low and spray, fluid and aerosol are not included.

3. level 2:
These masks have higher level of protection for wearer than level 1 mask. This mask has 120mmHg fluid protection. This mask can handle light or moderate fluid, spray and aerosol.

4. level 3:
These masks can handle more critical situation than other. It can handle 160mmHg fluid. It can give you protection from heavy fluid, spray and aerosol.


You may also like: Introduction of Medical Textiles | Application of Medical Textiles


Surgical mask design and manufacturing process:
Design of a surgical mask depends on various mode. In general, this mask has three or fourlayers. Which give better protection and more air permeability. This thing is made from non-woven fabric. Because this nonwoven fabric gives better bacteria filtration remaining less slippery than woven cloth. Also, non-woven fabric is cheaper to make and has a disposable nature. This three-level ply are made from a melt blown material. Melt blown material is placed between non-woven fabric. This melt blown material act as a filter which stops microbes entering and exiting mask.

The most common material which is used for mask is polypropylene. Other material like polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyethylene, or polyester are also used to make both 20 and 25 grams per square meter (gsm) in density. 20 gsm and 25 gsm mask making process are similar. In 20 gsm first extruding melted plastic on a conveyor. Plastic are extruded in web for that they stand in bond as they cool. 25 gsm making is also similar. Here also extruded through a die with hundreds of nozzles and blown by hot air to became tiny fiber. Filtration ability of a mask on many things such as fiber it uses, manufacturing process, web structure, the fiber’s cross-sectional shape etc.

Surgical mask test:
After making of a surgical mask it goes through different test:

1. Bacteria filtration efficiency in vitro (BFE):
Shooting an aerosol with staphylococcus aureus bacteria on mask at the rate of 28.3 litters per min to ensure either it can catch the amounts of bacteria it should.

2. Flammability:
It tests how slowly and how long the material take to burn. Level 1,2,3 all need level 1 flam resistance.

3. Breathing resistance:
This test is shooting air flow on mask then measure the air pressure both the side of the mask. So that when wearer breath that mask can hold its shape and filter properly.

4. Splash resistance:
In this test simulated blood is splashed to mask at the similar speed of human body to ensure liquid cannot contaminate wearer.

5. Particle Filtration Efficiency:
To ensure if the mask can filter the size of particle it should this test spray an aerosol of polystyrene microspheres.

Uses of surgical mask:
Surgical masks are widely used by the health care workers. Simple surgical mask protects us from being splashed by the body fluid of other or prevent transmission of body fluid from the wearer to others. Surgeon wear them during surgery. Surgical mask also worn by the general people. They wear these masks to protect them from air pollution, bacteria and infection. Now surgical mask is widely used in coronavirus outbreak.

Surgical mask vs respirators:
There are many questions in people mind. Like, what is surgical mask for? When we should use it? Can it filter airborne disease? Let’s answer these questions. in previous para we knew about is surgical mask. Now we will know what respirator is.

Surgical mask and Respirators
Fig: Surgical mask and Respirators
Respirators:
Respirators are designed to protect you from airborne disease. Respirators comes in different size. So, you should choose which one fits you. Because it provides a tight seal between wearer’s face. Which force air to pass through filter of the respirator.

Now we can say that respirators are more suitable for blocking airborne diseases.

Conclusion:
Now you know about type of surgical mask, its usage, difference with respirator and test. I hope it was helpful for you.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surgical_mask
  2. https://www.thomasnet.com/articles/other/how-surgical-masks-are-made/
  3. https://www.osha.gov/Publications/respirators-vs-surgicalmasks-factsheet.html
  4. https://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2015/12/spunbonding-method-for-nonwoven-fabric.html
Sharing Knowledge: Students, teachers and professionals can publish your article here. It is a platform to express your knowledge throughout the world. For details: Submit Article

Founder and Editor:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant, entrepreneur, blogger and researcher on online business promotion. He is working as a consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


Let's Get Connected: LinkedIn | Facebook | Email: textilelearners@gmail.com

Back To Top