Important Questions and Answers about Textile Fiber

Important Questions and Answers about Textile Fiber
R.S. Balakumar
M.A., M.L.M., MBA,(Exec)
Associate Professor (part-time)
Hindustan University, (Deemed to be University) Padur, Chennai, India.
Mobile: 9283182955
Email: rsbalakumar1953@gmail.com


1. What is textile?
“Textiles” is a Latin word. It means weaving or woven material. For a lay man also textiles mean a fabric which he purchases for making his garments such as Pant, Shirt. etc. But it does not appear to him that various garments, made-ups and yarn are also covered under the word “Textiles”. With the advent of new techniques in the sphere of production, the meaning of work “Textiles” has also undergone some changes. Textiles therefore really means any material made from the yarn (in some cases even by using the fibres in the case of felting and non-woven) either by adopting a process of weaving of knitting.

2. Enlist the process of fibre of fabric?
The process of covering fibre into fabric consists of three stages:-

  • Production of fibre,
  • Conversion of fibre into yarn, and
  • Conversion of yarn into fabric.
3. Brief on Fibre.
A textile raw material generally characterized by flexibility, fine-ness and high ratio of length of thickness is called a fibre. Fabric or garment is usually identified by the fibre used for its manufacturing. Thus the cotton cloth is the product made out of the cotton fibre, the woollen cloth from the wool fibre and so on. However, we also find the fabrics manufactured from two or more different types of fibres, which are normally called as blended or mixed fabrics. Besides we also come across multi-fibre fabrics where is different types of fibres are used for making the fabrics. In such cases a layman finds it increasingly difficult to identify the fabric.

4. Classify the Fibres.
The fibres are classified according to their A) source and B) on the basis of their length and diameter.

C) Classification of fibre (According to its source)

Classification of fibre

5. What is Natural fibre?
The fibres that are obtained from natural sources such as plants, animals and minerals are called natural fibres.

6. Write short note on cotton-vegetable fibre.
Cotton is a natural cellulosic fibre which is obtained from the cotton plant. Cotton is a strong fibre, but creases badly. It is very absorbent which makes it more comfortable for clothing in hot countries. It retains its strength when we wet and is ideal when regular laundering is required. Cotton fibre is considered a hygienic material because it can be cleaned easily and withstands rough handling and boiling temperature.

7. Brief on Jute.
Jute fibre is obtained from jute plant. This bast fibre is lustrous and creamy white if processed well. It is very strong and extremely absorbent, best conductor of heat and dries more quickly. It can be spun into fine yarns.

8. Brief on Flax.
Flax is also a bast fibre. It is mainly used for industrial purpose such as fishnet, sewing thread, and canvas and fire hose. Flax is referred for the fibre which is extracted from the flax plant where as linen is referred as yarn or cloth which is made out of flax fibre. Although the word linen is also used for describing types of cloths principally for tablecloths, towels, chef’s aprons etc., which may be made out from the fibres other than flax also. Linen is the least elastic and resilient of the natural fibre. Linen fibre wrinkles and creases easily.

9. Write a note on Wool.
Wool is hair fibre of sheep or lamb. Wool is natural protein fibre. The cloths made from wool are excellent insulators and are comfortable to wear in wet and cold weather, because wool absorbs moisture and cloth also keep their shape well, because of wool’s elasticity and resilience. Wool has lower tensile strength and in wet condition loses its strength up to 25%. Wool attracts dust, bacteria and dirt particles. So it requires frequent dry cleaning.

10. Brief on Silk.
Silk filament is obtained from cocoons of silk worms. Silk is an animal fibre and proteinous in nature. It is obtained from two distinct varieties of silkworms, wild and cultivated. Wild varieties produce silk, which are often known as tussar silks. They are gummy in feeling, dull in luster, and have rough, uneven yarns. From the cultivated silkworm cocoons, a fine, long and even fibre can be reeled in the form of filament. Silk is known as luxury fibre or royal fibre due to its luster, fluidity, resilience and comfort. It is non-conductor of heat and most elastic of the natural fibres. With too much strain, however, it never recovers its original size. It can absorb moisture up to 30% without feeling wet.

11. What is manmade fibres.
The fibres manufactured from the natural organic raw materials and non-natural synthetic raw materials are called manmade fibres.

12. Enlist the regenerated fibres.

  • Viscose rayon
  • Cuprammonium Rayon
  • Acetate Rayon
13. What is Viscose Rayon?
Viscose Rayon is made from viscose solution obtained by dissolving wood pulp of spruce, hemlock and pine trees in concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide. It looses its strength in wet condition. It is lustrous and its absorbency and drying quality are closely akin to those of silk. Viscose fabrics need to be processed to impart a good degree of wrinkle resistance. Its strength and absorbency can be increased by reorientation process, the final product is known as polynosic fibre which is akin to cotton.

14. Brief on Cuprammonium Rayon.
It is a regenerated cellulose fibre. In the production of this rayon, cellulose is dissolved in a cuprammonium solution extruded into a current of water, which uses a degree of stretch and coagulated in bath of acid. This material is more expensive than viscose rayon and for this reason its uses are confined to more luxurious goods. It looses in wet condition up to 40 – 70% of its natural strength and regains completely when it is dried. It is a good conductor of heat and absorbs moisture readily and retains without feeling wet.

15. Write a note on Acetate Rayon.
It is a regenerated cellulose fibre. In the production of the rayon, cellulose is dissolved in a glacial acetic acid solution. It has very high luster. It absorbs moisture up to 40% of its weight. Acetate is a relatively weak fibre, it has relatively low tensile strength and low abrasion resistance. When wet, it temporarily looses up to 45% of its strength and is a poor conductor of heat. It is thermoplastic in nature i.e., it can be softened by the application of heat and pressed into a particular shape. This permits the permanent embossing of acetate fabrics.

16. What is Synthetic fibres – Nylon?
Nylon is chemically known as polyamide. It is the first manmade organic textile fibre by using coal, air and water. There are different varieties of nylon fibres based on different chemical compounds. It has great strength and looses 10% of its strength in wet condition. It absorbs moisture about 7% of its weight. It feels very uncomfortable on warm humid days. It is cold in winter and warm in summer.

17. Brief on Polyester.
Polyester is most popular fibre produced from DMT (Dimethylene terephthalate) and Ethylene Glycol. These two basic chemicals are obtained from petroleum, which are polymerized to get polyester. The trade names are Terylene, Terence, Dacron etc., Polyester has good strength but, in wet condition it looses very small % of its strength. Relatively cool fibre with outstanding wrinkle resistance to shrinkage or stretch. It absorbs very little moisture as such makes polyester fabric uncomfortable in warm and humid weather.

18. What is Acrylic?
The fibre resembles wool. Therefore, it is a substitute for natural wool. The trade names are Orlon, Cashmilon etc., The basic chemical used for acrylic production is acrylonitrile. The acrylic fibres are very resilient. They will not wrinkle easily and any wrinkle that may form fall out readily. They do not have stretchability but they have good recovery. In wet condition it looses 20 – 25% of its strength. It is a poor conductor of heat and their cross-section shapes are dogbone or somewhat flat. As a result, these fibres have a good covering and bulking property, which provides insulation and warmth. Fabrics of these fibres are warmer than similar wool.

19. Classify two fibres.
Textile fibres can be classified into staple and filament.

20. What is staple fibre?
Staple fibre is a short length fibre of varying length between 0.5” to 2” in the case of cotton and 1” to 8” in the case of wool fibre. The staple fibre forms the base of yarns i.e., the yarn are spun from the fibres. The staple is more commonly used in the case of man-made fibres like Viscose staple, Polyester staple, Nylon staple, etc., The yarn manufactured from the staple fibres is generally stronger than the filament yarn due to twist given at the time of spinning.


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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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