Antimicrobial Finishing of Cotton Fabric with Turmeric and Chitosan

Antimicrobial Finishing of Cotton Fabric with Turmeric and Chitosan
Berhe Adehena1
Destalem Zeneb
Beruhu Fissiha

Department of Textile Engineering
Wollo University, Ethiopia


1.1 Background:
Recently, there has been upsurge interest in the textile engineering all over the world for much demanding functionality of the products like wrinkle resistance, water repelling, fade resistance and resistance to microbial invasion. Among these, development of antimicrobial textile finish is highly indispensable and relevant since garments are in direct contact with human body (Asimi, Sahu & Pal, 2013).

Cotton fabrics provide ideal environment for microbial growth. Several challenges have been created for apparel researchers due to increasing global demand for textile products (Anthony, 2009). Therefore, textile finishes with added value particularly for medical cloths are greatly appreciated and there is an increasing demand on global scale. The consumers are aware of hygienic life style and there is a necessity of textile product with antimicrobial properties. However, due to their cost and synthetic in nature which creates environmental problems, natural dyes in textile coloration are gaining significant momentum (Lee et. al., 2009). This new line of interest is due to stringent environmental standards imposed by many countries due to the usage of synthetic materials which causes allergic reaction and toxicity. Greater interest has emerged in the field of textile technology using natural colorants, on account of their compatibility with deodorising properties (Lee et al 2009).

Comprehensive literature is available on natural dyes can be obtained from plants (Anthony and Dweck 2009). Many of plants used for dye extraction are classified as medicinal and some of these have recently been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity (Changaiah et al 2010). All of the naturally available dyes are environmental friendly. Therefore, it is indispensible to need more investigation in the development of eco-friendly antibacterial agents extracted from plants for textile applications. The effect of various plant and animal extract on bacteria and fungi has been studied by number of researchers (Bhala, Dhandhania & Periyasamy, 2012).

Traditionally, the antimicrobial protection of textiles included many chemical substances, such as inorganic salts, phenols, antibiotics, iodine derivates, nitro compounds, formaldehyde derivatives, amines, etc. Unfortunately, the drawback of these compounds is their toxicities maintained by poor biodegradability, which is unacceptable from the point of view of current environmental and health protection legislation. It is for this reason the textile functionalization has been forced to involve natural non-toxic active substances in the technological process, which cause minimal or no side-effects to people and to the environment (Chengaiah et. al., 2010).

Among natural antimicrobial-acting polysaccharides, chitosan is very interesting due to its molecular structure, which allows for a whole range of modifications. The antimicrobial character of chitosan is mainly attributed to its amino groups, which in diluted acid solutions form ammonium salts, resulting in the destruction/death of microbes’ cells (Dai et. al., 2011).. Chitosan has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a food additive, which means it can be explored within the textile industry as a safe natural new-age antimicrobial-acting compound (Kasiri & Safapour, 2014).

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has long been used as a condiment and folk medicine for long days. The rhizome of turmeric contains curcuminoid compounds, turmeric oil, oleoresin and other components. Turmeric is an essential oil commonly used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications due to its antimicrobial (Kavitha et. al., 2007).

Although certain natural antibacterial agents are available at present, only few studies have been explored for their antibacterial activity on textile materials and also requires progressive and consolidated data on antimicrobial finished product of textiles particularly in the preparation of medical cloths (Lawhavinit, Kongkathip & Kongkathip, 2010).

In this study turmeric and chitosan is used as anti-microbial agent. There is several advantage of using turmeric as anti-microbial. It contains properties such as antioxidant and anti-filamentary properties curcumin posse not only chemo preventive but also anti cancer activities.

1.2 Statement of the problem:
Microorganism growth is factor that has resulted in development of antimicrobial finish. Microbial infestation poses danger to both living and non-living matters. Microorganisms cause with textile raw materials and processing chemicals, wet processes in the mills, roll or bulk goods in storage, finished goods in storage and transport, and goods as the consumer uses them. Obnoxious smell form the inner garments such as socks, spread of diseases, staining and degradation of textiles are some of the detrimental effects of bad microbes. The consumers are now increasingly aware of the hygienic life style and there is a necessity and expectation for a wide range of textile products finished with antimicrobial properties

Infection by microbes cause cross infection by pathogen and developments of odor where the fabric is worn next to skin In addition, the staining and loss of the performance properties of textile substrates are the results of microbial attack.

Clothing and textile materials are good media for growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and yeast.

1.3 Objectives

1.3.1 General objective:

  1. The main objective of the project is to develop antimicrobial effect using turmeric and chitosan.
1.3.2 Specific objectives:
  1. Coat by the turmeric and chitosan with different proportion on cotton fabric and to develop antibacterial fabric for medical end use.
  2. To test the antimicrobial effect on coated fabrics.
1.4 Significant of study:
  1. To decrease degradation of textiles and loss of the performance properties of textile substrates.
  2. To make the process eco-friendly and hygienic.
1.5 Scope of study:
The scopes have been identified for this study in order to achieve the objective to this research, using turmeric and chitosan to coat the cotton fabric and to study its ant microbial properties.

1.6 Limitation:
Some common problems related with application of antimicrobial finishes are given as follows:

  • Stiff hand and fabric strength loss: This may be caused by the choice of binders and resins with controlled-release finishes.
  • Color change: This may occur due to inappropriate choice of antimicrobial finishes.
  • Selectivity: Some antimicrobial finishes are efficient against Gram-positive bacteria or Gram-negative bacteria, while others against fungi. A formulation that is mixture of several substances will be more effective for good all-round protection against microbes.


2.1 History of Antimicrobial Finish:
During world war II, when cotton fabric was extensively used for tentage, tarpaulins and truck covers, these fabrics need to be protected from rotting caused by microbial attack. This was particularly a problem in the south pacific campaigns, where much of the fighting took place under jungle like conditions. During the early 1940’s, the US army quartermaster Crops and collected and complied data on fungi, yeast and algae isolated from textiles in topical and subtropical areas throughout the world (Lee , Hwang & Kim, 2009).

Cotton duck, webbing and other military fabrics were treated with mixtures of chlorinated waxes, copper and antimony salts that stiffened the fabrics and gave them a distinct odor. At the time potential polluting effects of the application

materials and toxicity related issue were not a major consideration. After world war II, and as late as the mid-to-late 1950’s fungicides used to cotton fabrics were compounds such as 8-hydroxyginoline salts, copper napthenate, copper ammonium fluoride and chlorinated phenols. As the government and industrial firms became more aware of the environment and workplace hazards these compounds caused. Alternative products were sought.

Microbial growth on textile leads to odor development, mildew growth derived discoloration up to the loss of functional properties (elasticity and tenacity) For that reason already in the seventeenth century ship cloth was conserved by tanning with iron salt solutions (Brown color) . The use of hygienically effective substance today is related to body tight worn garment and sports textiles, mattresses and socks. Especially cellulosic fibers are in the first place cotton are targeted fibers for antimicrobial functionalization.

2.2 Microbes:
A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic living organism, which may be single- celled or multicellular Microorganisms i.e. bacteria, fungi, mildew, mold and yeasts are found everywhere in nature, even in hostile environment. The human is usually crowded with innumerablemicroorganisms. A suitable temperature, moisture, dust and receptive surface provide perfect conditions for their growth .In favorable conditions certain bacteria can grow from a single germ to millions in a very short period of time. They can double every 20-30 seconds in a warm and mosit microclimate that has plenty of food for them e.g. perspiration and other body secretions, skin particles, fats and left overs from worn-out threads

2.2.1 Type of microbes that attack textile materials
Microbes are the tiniest creatures not seen by the naked eyes. They include a variety of micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae and virus. Further, subdivisions in the bacteria family are Gram positive (staphylococcus aurous), Gram negative (E-coli), Spore bearing or non-spore bearing type. Some specific types of bacterial are pathogenic and cause cross infection. Fungi, molds or mildew are complex organisms with slow growth rate. They are part of our everyday live and found everywhere in the environment and on our bodies.

2.2.2 Attack of Textile Materials by Microbes

2.2.3 Natural Fibers
Textiles made from natural fibers are generally more susceptible to biodeterioration than are the synthetic (man-made) fibres. This is because their porous hydrophilic structure retains water, oxygen and nutrients, providing perfect environments for bacterial growth. Products such as starch, protein derivatives, fats and oils used in finishing of textiles can also promote microbial growth. Micro-organisms may attack the entire substrate, that is the textiles fibres or may attack only one components of the substrate, such as plasticizer contained therein, or grow on dirt that has accumulated on the surface of a product. Nevertheless, even mild surface growth can make a fabric look unattractive by the appearance of unwanted pigmentation. Heavy infestation which results in rotting and breakdown of the fibres and subsequent physical changes such as loss of strength or flexibility may cause the fabric to fail in service.

2.3 Materials by microbes
People are totally concern over the problems of odour, staining, deterioration, and human health condition such as allergies or infectious disease (Tables 1)

Table 1: Some of common microbes and their influence
Some of common microbes and their influence

2.4 Application of antimicrobials by leaching technology:
The vast majority of antimicrobials work by leaching or moving from the surface on which they are applied. This is the mechanisms used by leaching antimicrobials to poison a microorganism. Such chemicals have been used for decades in agricultural application with mixed results. Besides affecting durability and useful life, leaching technologies have potential to cause a variety of other problems when used in garments. These include their negative effects because; they can contact the skin and potentially affect the normal skin bacteria, cross the skin barrier, and/or have the potential to cause rashes and other skin irritations.

2.5 Effects of microbes on textile and human beings:
Although microbes can be useful in many ways, for example in brewing, baking and biotechnology, they can also be harmful to both textile and humans. Different substances added to textiles, such as size, hand modifiers, antis tats, thickeners, lubricants and dirt as well as grease, sweat and dead skin from the human body provide a great source of nourishment for microorganisms. Following are some of the possible effects microorganisms on textiles;

  • Bad odor
  • Discoloration
  • A slick slimy handle
  • Loss of functional properties like elasticity and tensile strength
  • Decrease in the life of the textiles, especially cotton and wool
The effect on human health is much more vast than the effect on textile. Most of the microbes involve diseases. Some of them do cause the prevention of some diseases. Bacteria associated with the human body outnumber body cells by ten to one. In most causes the bacteria that cause sickness are that bacteria that normally inhibit the body. They are picked up from the atmosphere. Some of the effect that are caused by microbes on human being is pointed out below : Various types of infectious diseases such as plague, tuberculosis, anthrax, malaria etc.
  • Food poisoning and water caused diseases
  • Damage of building materials
  • Bad odor
2.6 Antimicrobial component:
Normal home-washing of textiles, which is generally under mild conditions, does not completely remove the microbes. In order to eliminate microbes, very severe laundering conditions, e.g. a temperature 95°c and strong detergent followed by bleach, are essential. Any surviving microbes can quickly multiply again at each further wearing. This can be avoided by the application of antimicrobial (Mahesh, Manjunatha Reddy, & VijayaKumar, 2011).

In this research chitosan is used as antimicrobial agent. This have been investigated as an antimicrobial material against a wide range of target organism like algae, bacteria, yeasts and fungi in experiments involving invivo and in vitro interactions with chitosan in different forms ( solution, film and composites ). Chitosan is considered to be a bactericidal ( kills the live bacteria or some fraction) or bacteriostatic ( hinders the growth of bacteria but does not imply whether or not bacteria are killed), often with no distinction between activities. The exact mechanism is not fully understood and several other factors may contribute to the antimicrobial action (Lourenço et. al., 2013).

2.7 Chemical composition of turmeric:

Chemical composition of turmeric
Table 2.2: Chemical composition of turmeric
Chemical structure of turmeric extracts compound and curcumin
Structure of turmeric extracts
Figure 2.1: Structure of turmeric extracts
R' =R''= H: Curcumin

R = OMe; R´=H; R''=H: Demethoxycurcumin

R = R'= R''=H:Bis-demethoxycurcumin

R =OMe; R'= OH;R''= H:(1E,6E)-1-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphe- nyl)-7-(3,4-ihydroxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione

R = R'= R''=OMe:5'-MethoxycurcuminAntibacterialpropertiesoftreated

2.8 Required for an antibacterial agent:
Textile material in particular, the garments are more susceptible to wear and tear. It is important to take into account the impact of stress strain, thermal and mechanical effects on the finished substrates. The following requirements need to be satisfied to obtain maximum benefits out of the finish. Durability to washing, dry cleaning and hot pressing. Selective activity to undesirable microorganisms. Should not produce harmful effects to the manufacturer, user and the environment. Should comply with the statutory requirements of regulating agencies (Mandroli & Bhat, 2013).

Compatibility with the chemical processes. Easy method of application.No deterioration of fabric quality Resistant to body fluids.Resistant to disinfections/ sterilization.

Safety, non-toxicity for human health and the environment and also biodegradability are required for an antibacterial agent.

2.8.1 Durability of Antimicrobial Textiles
Temporary antimicrobial properties in textiles are easy to achieve in finishing but readily lost in laundering. Temporary antimicrobial textiles are useful only for disposal materials. Durable antimicrobial function is quite challenging to achieve and can last more than 50 machine washes (Murthy, Soumya, & Srinivas, 2015).

2.9 Mechanisms of antimicrobial finishes:
Despite the long list of requirements, a variety of chemical finishes have been used to produce textiles with demonstrable antimicrobial properties. These products can be divided into two types based on the mode of attack on microbes. One type consists of chemicals that can be considered to operate by a controlled-release mechanism. The antimicrobial is slowly released from a reservoir either on the fabric surface or in the interior of the fibre. This ‘leaching’ type of antimicrobial can be very effective against microbes on the fibre surface or in the surrounding environment (Naz, et. al., 2010). However, eventually the reservoir will be depleted and the finish will no longer be effective. In addition, the antimicrobial that is released to the environment may interfere with other desirable microbes, such as those present in waste treatment facilities. The second type of antimicrobial finish consists of molecules that are chemically bound to fiber surfaces. These products can control only those microbes that are present on the fiber surface, not in the surrounding environment. ‘Bound’ antimicrobials, because of their attachment to the fiber, can potentially be abraded away or become deactivated and lose long term durability. Antimicrobial finishes that control the growth and spread of microbes are more properly called biostats, i.e. bacteriostats, fungi stats. Products that actually kill microbes are biocides, i.e. bacteriocides, fungicides. This distinction is important when dealing with governmental regulations, since biocides are strongly controlled (Rachana, S., & Venugopalan, P. (2014).

2.10 Antimicrobial effects:
Turmeric extract and the essential oil of Curcuma longa (turmeric) inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria, parasites, and pathogenic fungi. A study of chicks infected with the caecal parasite Eimera maxima demonstrated that diets supplemented with 1-percent turmeric resulted in a reduction in small intestinal lesion scores and improved weight gain. Another animal study, in which guinea pigs were infected with either dermatophytes, pathogenic molds, or yeast, found that topically applied turmeric oil inhibiteddermatophytes and pathogenic fungi, but neither curcumin nor turmeric oil affected the yeast isolates. Improvements in lesions were observed in the dermatophytes and fungi-infected guinea pigs, and at seven days post-turmeric application the lesions disappeared. Curcumin has also been found to have moderate activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania major organisms (Singh & Jain, 2011).

2.11 Chitosan:
Chitosan is a deacetylated derivate of chitin, which is a natural polysaccharide mainly derived from the shells of shrimps. Chemically, it can be designated as poly-β-(1→4)-D-glucosamine or poly-(1,4)- 2-amido-deoxy-β-D-glucose (Tiwari, et. al., 2009). In addition to its antimicrobial activity, chitosan has some important advantages such as non-toxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability (Lertsutthiwong & Rojsitthisak, 2011).

The antimicrobial efficiency of chitosan depends on its average molecular weight, degree of deacetylation and the ratio between protonated and unprotonated amino groups in the structure It is believed that chitosan of a low molecular weight is more antimicrobially active than chitosan oligomers. The efficiency also increases with increased deacetylation, which can exceed 90%. An important disadvantage of chitosan is its weak adhesion to cellulose fibers, resulting in a gradual leaching from the fiber surface with repetitive washing. To enable chitosan to bind strongly to cellulose fibers, various crosslinking agents are used, including mostly polycarboxylicacids . In the presence of a crosslinking agent, hydroxyl groups of chitosan and cellulose can form covalent bonds with carboxyl groups of polycarboxylic acid in an esterification reaction or with hydroxyl groups of imidazolidinone in an etherification reaction, thus leading to the formation of a crosslink between chitosan and cellulose. This greatly improves durability and wash resistance (Ungphaiboon, et. al., 2005).

2.12 Benefit of antimicrobial textiles:

A wide range textile product is now a available for the benefit of the consumer. Initially, the primary objective of the finish was to protect textiles from being affected by microbes particularly fungi. Uniforms, tents, defense textile and technical textiles, such as, geo-textiles have therefore all been finished using antimicrobial agents. Later, the home textiles, such as, curtains coverings and bath mats came with antimicrobial finish. The application of the finish is now extended to textile used for outdoor, health care sector, sports and leisure (Zemljic, et. al., 2014).


3.1 Materials:

3.1.1. Turmeric Powder:
The roots of turmeric are collected from the market. Then collected turmeric roots are washed with clean water to remove the dust and impurities. Cleaned turmeric was dried in open sunlight. Then, the root soft turmeric powder is stored in dry container. The powder of turmeric roots was used as coating material for the cotton fabric in our research.

3.1.2. Chitosan:
Chitosan polymer was supplied by Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin, India.

3.1.3. Cotton Fabric:
100%Woven cotton bleached (woven) fabric is used in this research with the following properties.

Specifications of the fabric used for treatment
Table3.1: Specifications of the fabric used for treatment
3.1.4 Microorganisms:
The microorganisms used for the study includes human pathogenic gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aurous and gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia-coli.

Figure 3.1 Staphylococcus                               Figure 3.2 Escherichia-coli
3.1.5 Apparatus:
  • Beakers padding machine
  • PH Meter
  • Curing machine
  • Electric Balance
  • Washing machine
  • Scissor
  • Drying machine
  • Thermometer
3.2 Work method flow through the project: 

Preparation of Cotton Fabric

Preparation of Turmeric & Chitosan Solution

Coating of cotton fabric with Different Proportions

Testing of coated cotton fabric

Result Analysis

Thesis Preparation

3.3 Preparation of turmeric solution:
The turmeric solution is extracted from the fresh turmeric roots. The turmeric solution was prepared by the extracted turmeric powder & mixing it with water at neutral pH, at 95°c for 1 hours. The obtained turmeric solution had a yellowish color.

3.4 Preparation of chitosan solution:
The chitosan solution was prepared by dissolving 5 grams of chitosan flakes in 100 mL of 5% acetic acid (pH = 4).

Recipe for chitosan solution
Table 3.2: Recipe for chitosan solution
Then the solution was left standing overnight. After 12 hours, chitosan solution was stirred on a hot plate stirrer at 600 C for 30 min and filtered before use. The recipe for preparation of chitosan solution is given in Table 1.

3.5 Coating of prepared solution on cotton fabric
The Solution was prepared by mixing with different ratio of turmeric solution and chitosan solution in a flask and stirring is done for uniform mixing.

The water bath is maintained at a uniform room temperature. Finally the Cotton fabric are taken and being coated with the prepared solution. Here we used M:L ration = 1:20.

Sample Coating proportion
Table 3.3: Sample Coating proportion 
3.6 Application ways or working procure:
We prepare solution according to recipe calculation

We Take sample of bleached cotton fabric

Set the pickup of padded of padding machine at 70%.

Set the temperature of curing machine for drying at 120°C for 1-2 minutes

We Drop from the turmeric and chitosan solution in padding machine according the sample composition

The fabric is dipped in a solution and on a padding machine

Washing of the finishing fabric according the recommended time 4-6

Drying and curing according to recommended temperature120°C for 1-2 minutes and 5 min at 150°C respectively.

3.7 Anti-microbial agent:
In this research turmeric is used as antimicrobial agent. These have been investigating as antimicrobial material against organism like algae, bacteria, yeasts and fungi in our experiments.

3.8 Universal Beer Agar (UBA):
Since it’s development at the Begia Brewing Company this has been a favorite medium for brewery microbiologists. This Medium may be described as a universal medium that will enable the growth of yeasts, worth spoiling bacteria, common Environmental bacteria (coli forms), and beer spoilers that require Oxygen. Satisfactory recovery is attained for worth and beer Microorganisms but this is not a differential medium; it only gives Total counts! Plates are generally incubated at 28◦C for about 48hisAerobic Incubation is needed for measuring overall sanitation for the detection of Yeasts and molds.

3.8.1 Quantitative Assessment by Percentage Reduction Test (AATCC 100-2004)
The quantitative determination of antimicrobial activity was based on the Absorption method from JIS L 1902:2008 and AATCC Test Method 100-2004 protocols.

The efficiency of the antimicrobial treatment was determined by comparing the reduction in bacterial concentration of the treated sample with that of control sample expressed as a percentage reduction in standard time.

% Reduction = [(A-B)/A] x 100 …..(1)

A where Aand B are the surviving cells (CFU/ml) for the flasks containing the control (uncoated cotton fabric) and test samples (coated cotton fabric), respectively, after 48 hrs of contact time.


4.1 Verification Tests of Antimicrobial Finish:
The types of test for verification of antimicrobial finish in our research work is: Quantitative Test

Qualitative Test helps us to verify that whether antimicrobial finish is applied properly on the substrate or not. The test that we commonly use on industrial scale is known as “BPB (Bromo Phenol Blue)” Test. In this research Quantitative test method has been followed Universal Beer Agar (UBA).

4.1.1. Result and Discussion of Anti-Microbial Finish
In this chapter, antimicrobial activity of the treated fabric is investigated against different concentration of Chitosan and turmeric

Below here we listed the results of effectiveness of antimicrobial activity.

effectiveness of antimicrobial activity

Results of effectiveness of antimicrobial activity
Table 4.1: Results of effectiveness of antimicrobial activity
Result of anti-microbial finish
Table 4.2: Result of anti-microbial finish
e.g. Sample 1 to calculate the percentage reduction in standard time using

% Reduction = [(A-B)/A] x 100 41-1]/41 X 100 =87.8%

All the above sample are calculated by this methods

4.1.2 Discussion of Testing Results of Antimicrobial Activity
It is concluded from testing results of antimicrobial activity that sample like 1 has 100% amount of turmeric in their recipes. Amount was less when we compare from the other samples (2, 3, 4&5). Even with in high washing time then we concluded that it comes in the category of Under Treated.

Similarly when we compare Sample 2 from sample 1 then we concluded that it comes in the category of slightly significant. In this recipe, amount of Chitosan was 25% $ tumeric75%.

When we again compare Sample 3 with like’s sample 1$ 2 in these recipes, amount of Chitosan was 50% $50% turmeric then we concluded that is more significant.

Lastly when we camper sample 4$ 5there is no significant different between them both are more effective anti microbial activity.

4.2 Crease recovery angle:
Crease recovery angle behavior has been measured in terms of total crease recovery angle (CRA), which is the sum of crease recovery angel measured in warp and weft way CRA is only 77º for untreated fabric and for all treated the value range from 82 º to 110 which is comparable to that of treated control sample increase in the CRA is mainly due to cross linking of cellulose chine.

As concentration of chitosan 100% treated samples show only a marginal increase in crease recovery angle values in the range 82º- 95º, it inferred the chitosan cannot improve crease recovery angel of cotton fabric significantly but, addition of turmeric helps to improve the crease recovery though the molecular cross liking and makes the fabric more functional. Almost all sample shows good creases recover angel around 110º (table)

Crease recovery angle
Table 4.3: Crease recovery angle
4.3 Bending length (C):
The bending length is related to the angle that the fabric makes to the horizontal we calculate by using formula. when we compare Bending length (C) for untreated fabric 14.8cm and 100% chitosan we conclude that the fabric is stiffer, lack good drape, and lack flexibility. From treated one…….

bending length
Table 4.4: Bending length

Flexural rigidity
Table 4.5: Flexural rigidity
5. Conclusions
The coating of cotton fabric using turmeric and chitosan natural product was found to exhibit antibacterial properties. It exhibits efficient antimicrobial agent for the preparation of antimicrobial finish of medical cloths. The antibacterial efficacy of only turmeric and 75% turmeric combination with 25% chitosan coated fabric was found to be less efficient compared to only chitosan and 25tumeric combination with 75% chitosan coated fabric may be due to their binding properties. The improvement in the anti microbial property may be due to present of cationised amino group (–NH+3) in the chitosan and not influence present of turmeric The present investigation highlighted that coated fabric shows antibacterial properties against gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria reports on the efficiency of indicating that this technique can be used in the textile industry as antimicrobial finish of medical cloths both for gram positive and gram negative bacteria as value added products.

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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