Acrylic Fiber: Properties, Manufacturing Flowchart and Application

Basics of Acrylic Fiber
Vyas Darshan Pankajbhai
Department of Textile Engineering,
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda,
Baroda -390002, India

Acrylic Fiber

Acrylic Fiber is synthetic Fiber is made of polymerization of acrylonitrile with an molecule weight above ~100000, about 1900 monomer unit. For a called as 'Acrylic”. Typical Co-monomer are vinyl acetate or methyl acrylate.
  • Acrylic is defined as a refers to a fiber containg at least 85% acrylonitrile monomer, while in modacrylic the percentage of acrylonitrile must be less than 85% but greater than 35%.
  • Acrylic Fiber have replaced wool as it gives same properties as wool fiber like warmth, etc..
  • Acrylic monomer =(CH2=CH-CN) made by following reaction.
  • Cross - Sectional Shape of acrylic fiber.
Cross - Sectional Shape of acrylic fiber
  • Acrylic Fiber have replaced wool as
  • It gives same properties as wool fiber like warmth, etc..
  • Acrylic monomer =(CH2=CH-CN) made by following reaction
CH=CH       +            HCN --------->-(CH2=CH-CN)

(acetylene)          (Hydrogen Cyanide)              (Acrylonitrile)

Major Production Of Acrylic Fiber:-
Major Production Of Acrylic Fiber
Spinning of Acrylic fiber:

(1). Solution Spinning
  • Wet Spinning.
  • Dry Spinning
(2). Melt Spinning
Out of above techniques wet spinning is mostly prefer for production of acrylic fiber. Above all methods like wet spinning, in this fiber make by using solvents in particular coagulation bath mix with appropriate percentage of solvent and other chemical. This process take more time to produce fiber compare to other spinning methods like, dry & melt.
Principle of wet spinning
Fig: Principle of wet spinning
Production of Acrylic Fiber:
Here shows production flow chart of acrylic fiber:-
production flow chart of acrylic fiber
Acrylic fiber is produced by free radical suspension polymerization is used and production is carry out in Dry & Wet Spinning.

Properties of Acrylic Fiber:-
  • Structure: - Normal C/s Of dog bones.
  • Density :-1.17 gm/cc ( light weight)
  • Crystallinity :-65 to 85%
  • Moisture Regain :- 2.5
  • Tenacity :-2.0 to 3.6 Gpd
  • Nature :- Thermoplastic
  • Elasticity :- at 2% extension 35%
  • Appearance :- Slightly wavy
  • M. P. :- 232 to 255' C
  • Chemically: - Resistance to weak alkali, less resistance to acid, no damage due to sunlight, no attraction to moth larva and microorganisms.
Application of Acrylic Fiber: 
Hand Knitting, Hosiery Garments, Upholstery, Blankets, carpet etc...
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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