Types of Yarn | Characteristics of Yarn


Ramandeep Singh
B.Tech, Dept. of Textile Engineering
Giani Zail Singh Punjab Technical University Campus,
Bathinda, Punjab, India
Email: rmnsandhu3335@gmail.com

Textile Yarn:
A textile yarn is an assembly of substantial length and relatively small cross section of fibers and/or filaments with or without twist”.

Spin-staple yarns consist of staple fibers assembled and bound together by various means (usually twist) to produce the required characteristics such as strength, handle and appearance .
Continuous filament yarns are produced either by combining the required number of filaments together or, more commonly, by producing the required number of filaments and thickness of filaments simultaneously in one spinning operation, as in the case of man-made fibers.

Physical properties and performance characteristics of different yarns:
Yarn type
General yarn properties
Staple yarns :
Carded cotton,Combed cotton
Excellent handle, good covering power, good comfort rating; reasonable strength; reasonable uniformity
Continuous filament yarns :
Excellent uniformity; excellent strength; can be very fine; fair handle; poor covering power
High bulk yarns :
Continuous filament
Good covering power with light weight; good loftiness of fullness
Stretch yarns :
Continuous filament
High stretch ability; good handle and covering power
Special end-use :
Tire cord,Rubber/elastic
Core yarn,Cabled,Coated
Purely functional; designed to satisfy a specific set of conditions.
Novelty yarns :
Fancy yarns, Metallic,
Excellent decorative features or characteristics

Ring Spun Yarn:
These are produced on the ring and traveler system from a wide variety of fiber types.
Ring Spun Yarn
Rotor spun Yarn
These yarns consist of fibers bound together by twist. Rotor spun yarns are generally produced from short staple fibers.
Rotor spun Yarn
Flat continuous filament yarn
Man- made continuous filament yarns may be produced in either monofilament or multifilament form.
Flat continuous filament yarn
Textured continuous filament yarn
These are man-made continuous filament yarns that have been modified by subsequent processing to introduce durable crimps , coils , loops or other distortions into the filaments.
Textured continuous filament yarn
Twist less Yarn
These are yarns produced from staple fibers where the consolidation of the fibers is done by means of adhesive.
Twist less Yarn
Core Yarn
Core yarns are characterized by having a central core wrapped with staple fibers. These are produced in a single operation by simultaneously feeding a core filament and staple fibers through the delivery rollers of a spinning frame.
Core yarns
Self Twist Yarn
Self-twist yarns are two-ply yarns Produced in a single operation. Each component is twisted in alternating directions in short segments.The two components are subsequently put together in such a way that they twist together (self-twist) to form final yarn.
Self-twist yarns
Friction Spun yarn
These yarns are produced on spinning systems which use two rotating rollers to collect and twist individual fibers into a Stable yarn structure.
Friction Spun yarn
Folded or Plied Yarn
A yarn in which two or more single yarns are twisted together in a single operation, for example two-fold, three-fold, four fold.
Folded or Plied Yarn
Cabled yarn
A yarn in which two or more folded yarns are twisted together in one or more operations. Folded and cabled yarns can be produced from staple yarns, continuous filament yarns or a combination of both.
Cabled yarn
End-uses of plied yarns
2 Ply
3- Ply
Cabled   yarn
sewing threads
industrial yarns
Industrial yarns
electrical insulation
shoe laces
filter cloths
sewing threads
conveyor belts
general purpose
A fancy yarn can be defined as one that differs from the normal construction of a single or doubled yarn by deliberately introduced irregularities in its construction.

The ‘novelty’ or ‘fancy’ yarns produce different textures and effects in the fabrics. Fancy yarns can be made from all natural fibers, all man-made fibers and their blends. They can be produced from pre-dyed or un dyed fibers and yarns.

Fabrics containing fancy yarns are used for many textile purposes, for instance apparel such as dress fabrics, or household textiles such as curtains and upholstery.

Novelty Yarns : 
Using one or more of the following techniques, novelty yarns may be produced. combination of different fiber types; combination of different colours of yarns; combination of different yarn linear densities; combination of different yarn lengths.


Generally , fancy yarns contain two or more of the following : a base or core yarn , around which the yarn intended to create the fancy effect is wrapped; the effect yarn , which forms the design ; and the binder which holds the effect yarn in place on the base to prevent it slipping while it is being wound, knitted or woven.
Fancy yarn
Gimp and Loop :
All these fancy yarns are produced by delivering the core and effect yarn at different rates.
Gimp and Loop
Gimp is a twisted core yarn, with the effect yarn wrapped around the core producing an irregular wavy surface. The effect yarn has a regular semi-circular appearance, while in loop, the effect yarn appears as well-formed circular loops.

Snarl :
This is made in the same way as a loop yarn, but using a highly twisted effect yarn which forms snarls rather than loops.
Spiral/Cork screw :
A plied yarn, in which one of the components wraps around the other, rather than the components twisting regularly together under the same tension. A spiral yarn tends to have a higher twist than a corkscrew yarn.
Spiral/Cork screw yarn
Slub :
This is composed of short, abnormally thick places at regular or irregular intervals. The slub effect is spun into the yarn .
Slub yarn
Cloud :
A two-colour yarn, in which both yarns take it in turn to obscure or cloud the other, giving the appearance of an intermittent colour change.
Cloud yarn
Fleck :
Small amounts of fibers of either different colours or luster or both, are introduced into the yarn. This gives it a spotted and short streaky appearance.
Fleck yarn
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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