Common Printing Defects/Faults | Causes of Printing Defects

Printing Defects:
Printing can be defined as localized application of dye or pigment in a paste form to generate a pattern or design in the fabric. It is also called localized dyeing. Nothing is perfect. During textile printing process, different types of defects occur in printed fabric. If you are running an industry and managing printing section, then all you need is to consider these defects that will distort the worth of your fabric. Printing defects may result from faulty or improper printing procedures, faulty or improper preparation of fabric prior to printing or from imperfections in the material being printed or to imperfections in the material itself. Here, we are listing some of the major textile printing defects to detect for setting a high quality standard for your textile industry.
Printing defects
Fig: Printing defects
The defects which occurred in printing process are given below:
  1. Flushing/Wicking
  2. Bleeding
  3. Misfits
  4. Stick-ins
  5. Scrimps
  6. Banding
  7. Unwanted pigment marking on Fabric
  8. Mottled
  9. Crack or Miss Alignment in Transfer Printed Fabric
  10. Printing Machine Stop
  11. Color out
The causes of these defects are enlisted below:

1. Flushing/Wicking:
Caused due to Low viscosity of print paste.

It occurs when the printed area bleeds out into the unprinted area. The result is a haloing or shadowing effect around the outline of the pattern design.

2. Bleeding:
Caused due to Low viscosity of print paste

It is major defect as it happens throughout the fabric unless the viscosity is corrected.

3. Misfits:
A misfit is a print defect caused by improper alignment of the screens. Also known as out of registration, misfits leave unprinted areas in the design.

For example, a green leaf may overlap its black outline or print over another color.

4. Stick-ins:
A stick-in occurs when a small fiber or piece of lint gets stuck in the screen opening.

The result is a small unprinted circle in the design. A stick-in is very difficult to see and often goes unnoticed during a long run.

5. Scrimps :
A scrimp defect occurs when the fabric creases underneath one of the screens during the printing process.

The pattern is then printed on top of the crease, leaving a large unprinted area when the fabric returns to its relaxed state.

6. Banding:
Defect created by the print head’s movement over the substrate.

Use of scanning print head, or a print head that moves back and forth across the substrate in straight line placing drops of ink at precise locations along the line.

If the head is not properly aligned, or if the substrate advances unevenly, the result is a slight horizontal band or line of unprinted area.

7. Unwanted pigment marking on Fabric:
Caused due to screen has holes in it that should have been covered. This could be because of ageing of the screen and eventual damage or just improper exposure to light.

8. Mottled :
Color applied unevenly during printing.

9. Crack or Miss Alignment in Transfer Printed Fabric :
Incomplete transfer of design from paper to fabric on transfer printing due to removal of transfer of paper while the fabric was still hot.

10. Printing Machine Stop:
As a result of printing machine stop the dye sometimes is smudged along the width of the fabric.

11. Color out:
The result of color running low in reservoir on printing machine.
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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