Some Important Parameters of Water for Textile Wet Processing Industry

Textile industry is the third largest consumer of water in the world. Wet processing engineering is one of the major streams in textile engineering. In every stages of wet processing huge amount of water is used. Soft water is the life line of textile wet processing as well as textile industry for better production quality. In below table I have given total water consumed in different stages during wet processing
Water consumed during wet processing
Fig: Water consumed during wet processing
Some Important Parameters of Water
Color : 
Color normally indicates the presence of soluble and suspended matter , which affects the textile wet processing . The color of water is measured in terms of Hazen units, by comparing it with a color of a standard solution. A Hazen unit is the color produced by dissolving 1 ppm platinum in the form of chloroplatinic acid , in the presence of 2 ppm cobalt chloride.

Turbidity is caused by the scattering of light by suspended matter which may be organic or inorganic in nature. The turbidity of water is measured against a standard solution having a standard turbidity value 1000 units.

pH is the measure of H+ ions concentration , its value indicates the nature of water ,such as neutral , acidic or alkaline. .pH of less than 7 indicates acidic , neutral at 7 and alkaline when above 7. The pH scale is having value from 0 to 14.

Total Dissolved solids(TDS):
TDS comprise of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that is dissolve in water. The TDS is measured in ppm (mg/ltr).

Total Suspended Solids(TSS):
The suspended solids are discrete particles which are insoluble in water .These can be removed by filtration and are also measured in ppm.

The alkalinity is due to the presence of bicarbonates , carbonates or hydroxides. Alkalinity is divided into caustic alkalinity ( above pH 8.2) and total alkalinity above pH 4.5.( Bicarbonate and caustic alkalinity).

Most natural waters are buffered by a CO2 / HCO3 system. Corbonic acid is not fully neutralized until a pH of 8.2 and will not depress pH below 4.5. CO2 acidity is in the pH range of 8.2 to 4.5 , mineral acidity due to industrial waste is below pH 4.5.

Disadvantages of Hard or Unsuitable water usage in textile processing
  1. Formation of hard soaps with calcium and magnesium ions , which results into shade change.
  2. Carbonates of calcium and magnesium precipitate iron and aluminum mordant and substantive cotton dyestuffs.
  3. Some dyes got duller and even scum formation happens in the hard water.
  4. The metal ion impurities such as iron and copper , is a problem in the peroxide bleaching baths, iron is responsible for reducing the brightness of many dyes and is also objectionable in the washing off operations.
  5. Hard water is responsible for scale formation in the boilers.
  6. If temporary hardness is high , the soft scales are formed which causes corrosion.
Desirable Water Quality Parameters for Textile Wet Processing 
  1. pH6.5-7.5
  2. TDS 300 ppm
  3. Color 5 Hazen No.
  4. Residue on ignition 250 ppm
  5. Total Hardness 30 ppm
  6. COD nil
  7. Turbidity nil
  8. Suspended Solids nil
  9. Copper 0.01 ppm
  10. Iron 0.01 ppm
  11. Chromium 0.01 ppm
  12. Manganese 0.05 ppm
  13. Aluminium 0.2 ppm
  14. Chloride 150 ppm
  15. Sulphate 150 ppm
  16. Nitrite nil 
You can also like:
  1. Water Consumption in Textile Industry
  2. Water Purification Process for Textile Wet Processing Industry
  3. Water Hardness Test Method
  4. Determination of Hardness of Water / Water Hardness
  5. Water Treatment Plant (WTP) | Process Sequence of Water Treatment Plant
  6. Characteristics of Effluent Water in Textile Wet Processing Industries
  7. Problem Caused by Hard Water in Wet Processing/Dyeing Industry
  8. Lime-Soda Water Softening Process
  9. Base Exchange (Ion Exchange) Water Softening Process
  10. Demineralization Process of Water Softening
  11. What is Hardness of Water? | Potential Problem Caused by Hard Water in Textile Wet Processing Industry
  12. Some Important Parameters of Water for Textile Wet Processing Industry 
  13. Implementation of Effluent Treatment Plants for Waste Water & Effect of Untreated on Environment 
  14. Effluent Treatment Plant Process Sequence in Textile Industry  
  15. Function of Different Units of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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