Rapier Weaving Machine (Rapier Loom) | Working Principle of Rapier Loom

Rapier Weaving Machine:
Rapier loom is a shuttleless weaving loom in which the filling yarn is carried through the shed of warp yarns to the other side of the loom by finger like carriers called rapiers. As in the projectile loom, a stationary package of yarn is used to supply the weft yarns in the rapier machine. One end of a rapier, a rod or steel tape, carries the weft yarn. The other end of the rapier is connected to the control system .The rapier moves across the width of the fabric, carrying the weft yarn across through the shed to the opposite side. The rapier is then retracted, leaving the new filling in place.

Rapier loom
In some versions of the machine, two rapiers are used, each half the width of the fabric in size. One rapier carries the yarn to the center of the shed, where the opposing rapier picks up the yarn and carries it the remainder of the way across the shed. A disadvantage of both these techniques is the space required for the machine if a rigid rapier is used. The housing for the rapiers must take up as much space as the width of the machine. To overcome this problem, looms with flexible rapiers have been devised. The flexible rapier can be coiled as it is withdrawn and will therefore require less space. However, if the rapier is too stiff, it will not coil; if it is too flexible, it will buckle. The double rapier is used more frequently than the single rapier. Rigid and flexible rapier machines operate at speeds of up to 1,300 meters of weft per minute. These rapier looms are efficient. They operate at speeds ranging from about 200 to 260 ppm at about the noise level of projectile looms. They can produce a wide variety of fabrics ranging from muslin to drapery and upholstery materials.
The operation principle of three rapier systems
Newer rapier machines are built with two distinct weaving areas for two separate fabrics. On such machines, one rapier picks up the yarn from the center, between the two fabrics, and carries it across one weaving area; as it finishes laying that pick, the opposite end of the rapier picks up another yarn from the center, and the rapier moves in the other direction to lay a pick for the second weaving area, on the other half of the machine. The above figure shows the action on a single width of fabric for a single rigid rapier system, a double rigid rapier system, and a double flexible rapier system . 

Rapier machines weave more rapidly than most shuttle machines but more slowly than most projectile machines. An important advantage of rapier machines is their flexibility, which perm it’s the laying of picks of different colors. They also weave yarns of any type of fiber and can weave fabrics up to 110 inches in width without modification. 

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant, entrepreneur, blogger and researcher on online business promotion. He is working as a consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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