Biomedical Textiles | Biomedical Textile Products | Application of Biomedical Textiles

 Introduction of Biomedical Textile
Biomedical textiles are fibrous structures designed for use in specific biological environments, where their performance depends on biocompatibility with cells and biological tissue or fluids.It is also branch of technical textile.Biomedical textiles are textile products and constructions, for medical and biological applications. It is related to medical textile. They are used for first aid, clinical or hygienic purposes. This type of textiles are manufactured from a wide range of processes. Extruded polymers can be further processed or used as filaments or tapes in dental floss and toothbrushes. Braided textiles are used for sutures and to replace damaged tendons and ligaments. Woven and knitted materials are used extensively in bandages, vascular grafts and hernia meshes. A specialised area of medical textiles is the extrusion of hollow fibre membranes used in extracorporeal devices. Non-wovens are primarily made from synthetic fibres and uses include wound dressings, hygiene products and protective clothing.

The design of a biomedical textile is driven by its end function. The main factors include:

Biodegradable Textiles
The textile needs to fulfil the purpose for which it was designed, for example swabs require an absorbent textile, sutures may require a biodegradable textile, while hospital bedding should be comfortable and durable.

This refers to the reaction of the textile with blood and tissue in the body. An implantable device has more potential for reaction than an external device and is, therefore, subject to tighter regulations. For example an artificial ligament is permanent and is able to react with blood cells and the surrounding tissue, compared to an external bandage that is temporary and only contacts the outer skin tissue.

This will depend on the raw materials, manufacturing process and product end-use; surgeons’ gowns and swabs should have a low production cost while vascular grafts and artificial skin will have a relatively high production cost.

Product approval: 
Each country has its own regulations and standards for medical textiles. However the European Union has introduced Community Legislation to govern medical devices. The three directives are: Active Implantable Medical Devices, Medical Devices Directive and In-Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices.

Biomedical Textile Products
Biomedical textiles are textile products and constructions, for medical and biological applications. They are used for first aid, clinical or hygienic purposes. Examples of their application are: 

Protective and healthcare textiles
Surgeons' wear, Operating drapes and Staff uniforms, etc. 

External devices
Wound dressings, bandages, pressure garments, prosthetic socks, etc. 

Implantable materials
Sutures, vascular grafts, artificial ligaments, etc. 

Hygiene products
Incontinence pads, nappies, tampons, sanitary towels, etc. 

Extracorporeal devices
Artificial liver, artificial kidney, artificial lung, etc.

Application of Biomedical Textiles
Since the 1960s, biomedical textiles have been used in cardiovascular medical devices, such as vascular grafts and heart valve sewing cuffs. However, the current wave of innovation is looking far beyond traditional materials and textile structures to enhance capabilities and performance in the repair of damaged or diseased cardiovascular tissue. In fact, the advent of new fabrics and geometries with greater variability of properties and performance characteristics, including the combination of resorbable and nonresorbable polymers, has enabled design developments previously unimagined.

Some uses are given below:
Protective and healthcare textiles: surgeons’ wear, operating drapes and staff uniforms, etc.
External devices: wound dressings, bandages, pressure garments, prosthetic socks, etc.
Implantable materials: sutures, vascular grafts, artificial ligaments, etc.
Hygiene products: incontinence pads, nappies, tampons, sanitary towels, etc.
Extracorporeal devices: artificial liver, artificial kidney, artificial lung, etc. 

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Founder and Editor:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant, entrepreneur, blogger and researcher on online business promotion. He is working as a consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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