Carrier Dyeing Method of Disperse Dye | Dyeing of Polyester Fabric with Disperse Dye In Carrier Method | Advantages of Carrier Dyeing | Disadvantages of Carrier Dyeing

Carrier in Disperse Dye:
The extreme crystalline nature of polyester fibers creates problems in obtaining dark shades by conventional dyeing methods even at high temperature. The carriers are found to assist the disperse dyes to enter the polyester polymer, enabling dark shades to be produced. The carriers swell the polyester fibres, increase inter polymer space and let the dye molecules to enter the polymer system easily.


Dye -

1. For light shade<0.5%
2. For medium shade 0.5-1.5%
3. For deep shade>1.5%
  • Carrier (phenol) : 3gm/lit
  • Acetic acid : 1gm/lit
  • Dispersing agent : 2gm/lit
  • Salt (NH4)2SO4 : 1-2gm/lit
  • pH :4-5.5
  • M:L : 1:10
  • Time : 60 min
  • Temperature : 90°C
  1. At first, a paste of dye and dispersing agent is prepared and then water is added to it.
  2. Dye bath is kept at 60°C temperature and all the chemicals along with the material are added to it. Then the bath is kept for 15 min without raising the temperature.
  3. pH of bath is controlled by acetic acid at 4-5.5.
  4. Now temperature of dye bath is raised to 90°C and at that temperature the bath is kept for 60 min.
  5. Then temperature is lowered to 60°C and resist and reduction cleaning is done if required. Reduction cleaning is done only to improve the wash fastness.
  6. Material is again rinsed well after reduction cleaning and then dried.
Carrier Dyeing curve
Dyeing Curve
Advantages of Carrier Dyeing
  • In conventional dyeing method, the extremely crystalline polyester fibres can not be dyed in deep shade. But by using carrier we can get medium to dark shade in boiling temperature.
  • Materials can be dyed with simple equipments at atmospheric pressure and temperature below 100°C.
  • Moderate level dyeing of polyester fabric can be done.
  • Some carriers reduce the staining of wool while dyeing polyester-wool blends.
  • Rate of dyeing can be increased by using carriers.
  • Can be dyed quickly by using carriers.
  • Improves fastness properties of fabric except light fastness.
Disadvantages of Carrier Dyeing
  • Carriers add to production cost of dyeing. Firstly, for dyeing it is used which is costly and secondly for its removal alkali is required.
  • Carriers are unhygienic and toxic. It creates skin diseases.
  • Some dyeing machines may create carrier spot.
  • Carriers affect the light fastness property of dyed material. This effect may be reduced by treating the material with hot air for 30 min.
  • Some carriers are dyed specific. They posses different efficiencies with different dyes; others have compatibility with certain dyes. 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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