Process of Cotton Desizing | Oxidative Desizing | Enzymatic Desizing | Acid Desizing

Desizing is the process of removing the size material from the warp yarns in woven fabrics. Sizing agents are selected on the basis of type of fabric, environmental friendliness, ease of removal, cost considerations, effluent treatment, etc.

Desizing, irrespective of what the desizing agent is, involves impregnation of the fabric with the desizing agent, allowing the desizing agent to degrade or solubilise the size material, and finally to wash out the degradation products. 
Fabric desizing
Fig: Fabric desizing

Desizing Process:
The major desizing processes are:
  1. Enzymatic desizing of starches on cotton fabrics
  2. Oxidative desizing
  3. Acid desizing
  4. Removal of water soluble sizes
Enzymatic Desizing
Enzymatic desizing is the classical desizing process of degrading starch size on cotton fabrics using enzymes. Enzymes are complex organic, soluble bio-catalysts, formed by living organisms, that catalyze chemical reaction in biological processes. Enzymes are quite specific in their action on a particular substance. A small quantity of enzyme is able to decompose a large quantity of the substance it acts upon. Enzymes are usually named by the kind of substance degraded in the reaction it catalyzes. Amylases is the enzyme that hydrolyses and reduces the molecular weight of amylose and amylopectin molecules in starch, rendering it water that is soluble enough to be washed off by the fabric. Effective enzymatic desizing require strict control of pH, temperature, water hardness, electrolyte addition and choice of surfactant.

Advantages of Enzymatic Desizing
  • No damage to the fibre
  • No usage of aggressive chemicals
  • Wide variety of application processes, and
  • High biodegradability 
Disadvantages Enzymatic Desizing
Lower additional cleaning effect towards other impurities, no effect on certain starches (e.g. tapioca starch) and possible loss of effectiveness through enzyme poisons.

Oxidative Desizing
In oxidative desizing, the risk of damage to the cellulose fiber is very high, and its use for desizing is increasingly rare. Oxidative desizing uses sodium or potassium persulphates or sodium bromite as an oxidizing agent.

Advantages of Oxidative Desizing
  • Supplementary cleaning effect
  • Effectiveness for tapioca starches
  • No loss in effectiveness due to enzyme poisons. 
Some disadvantages of oxidative desizing include possibility of fibre attack, use of aggressive chemicals and less variety of application methods.

Acid Desizing
Cold solutions of dilute sulfuric or hydrochloric acids are used to hydrolyze the starch, however, this has the disadvantage of also affecting the cellulose fiber in cotton fabrics.

Removal of Water-soluble Sizes
Fabrics containing water soluble sizes can be desized by washing using hot water, perhaps containing wetting agents and a mild alkali. The water replaces the size on the outer surface of the fiber, and absorbs within the fiber to remove any size residue.
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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