Textile Fibers: Sources, Chemical Composition

Types, Sources and Chemical Composition of Textile Fibers
Jay Sanjay Trivedi
Dept of Textile Engineering
Government Polytechnic Nagpur, India
Email: trivedij006@gmail.com



SOURCES OF CELLULOSIC FIBERS:

Classification of fiber according to cellulosic sources are given below.

1. SEED HAIR FIBERS:
The seed hairs like cotton contain cellulose with very less non cellulosic substance (4-12%). This makes purification most simpler than for most of other cellulosic fibers. Other seed fibers are kapok and bombax cotton. These fibers contain 55-65% cellulose.

2. BAST FIBERS:
The Bast fibers are long fibers of the outer bark of the various plants. It includes FLAX, HEMP, JUTE, RAMIE, KENAF, SUNN etc.. the fibers are integrated with natural gum in the plant structure. The fibers are separated by removal of the gums and the process is generally known as RETTING.

Textile fibers
Fig: Textile fibers
3. LEAF FIBERS:
Many of the celluslosiv fibers like SISAL, HEMP, MANILA are also obtained from the leaves of the plants. The fibers extend longitudinally the full length of the leaf and contribute strength to the leaves. The fibers are buried in tissues of the leaves and can be separated from the tissue by scrapping since there is no bonding between the fibers and the tissue. This process is known as DECORTIFICATION.

4. HASK OR FRUIT FIBERS:
The husk of coconut, betelnut,and palmnut which protect the fruit for development can be processed and utilize as a fiber. After removal of the fruit the husk can be extyracted, retted, and processed.

SOURCES OF PROTEIN FIBERS:

Sr. No
Fibers
Sources
1.
Wool
From Sheep
2.
Mohair
From Angara Goat
3.
Cashmere
From Cashmere Goat
4.
Camel Hair
From Camel
5.
Rabbit Hair
From Rabbit
6.
Horse Hair
From Horse
7.
Alpaca, Ilama
Ilama
Another type of protein fibers is produced from the larvae of caterpillars when cocoons are formed.

SOURCES OF SYNTHETIC:
Main sources of formation of synthetic fibers are:
  1. PETROLEUM
  2. NATURAL GAS DEPOSIT
  3. COAL
ADVANTAGE:
  • High resistance to chemicals
  • High resistance
  • Low flammability
  • High elasticity and so high resistance to distortion and creasing.
  • High resistance to abrasion.
CHEMICAL EXTRACTED AND MONOMERS:

Sr.No
Chemicals
Monomers
1.
Methane
Vinyl Chloride
Vinyl Acetate
Acrylonitrile
Hexamethylene Diamine
2.
Ethane
Vinyl Chloride
3.
Ethylene
Ethylene
Ethylene Glycol
Vinyl Chloride
Acrylonitrile
Hexamethylene Diamine
Styrene
4.
Propylene
Propylene
Acrylonitrile
5.
Proprane/Butane
Ethylene
Propylene
6.
Butadiene
Hexamethylene Diamine
7.
Benzene
Adipic Acid
Hexamethylene Diamine
Caprolactum
8.
Phenol
Terephathalic Acid
Hexamethylenediamine


CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER:


Sr.No
Monomer Characteristic
Type Of Polymer
1.
Functionality Of The Monomer
Linear Polymer, Branched Polymers, Or Cross Linked Polymers.
2.
Chemical Characteristic Of The Monomers
Addition Polymers Or Condensation Polymers.
3.
Chemical Groups Present In Condensation Polymers
Polymer Named As Per The Chemical Group E.G Polyamides, Polyethylene
4.
No. Of Monomers Used
Homo-Polymer Or Co-Polymer




The main characteristics of fiber forming polymer:

  1. Flexibility
  2. Molecular Mass
  3. Configuration
  4. Crystallinity
  5. Orientation
Spinning method for different polymer:

Sr.No
Method Of Spinning
Polymer
Chemical Nature
1.
Melt Spinning
Nylon
Polyester
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Polyamide
Poly(Ethylene Terephtalate)
Ethylene Homo And Co-Polymer
Propylene Homo And Copolymer
2.
Dry Spinning
Cell
Acetate Vinyon
Acetylated Cellulose
Vinyl Chloride And Vinyl Acetate Co-Polymer
Poly(Acrylonitrile)

3.
Wet Spinning
Viscose
Casein
Acrylin
Vinylon
Pvc
Cellulose
Protein
Poly(Acrylonitrile)
Polyvinyl Alcohol
Polyvinyl Chloride

DENSITY METHOD:
Volume fraction crystallinity can be calculated by using following equation:

Xv(%) = do-da/dc-da*100

where,

Xv = is the volume fraction crystallinity.
do = the density of the experimental sample.
dc = the density of pure crystalline area.
da = the density of pure amorphous area.

The mass fraction crystallinity can be measured from the specific volume information. This equation is:

Xm(%) = Va-Vo/Va-Vc*100

where,

Xm = is the mass fraction crystallinity.
Vo = the specific volume of the experimental sample.
Va = the specific volume of pure amorphous area and
Vc = the specific volume of pure crystalline area.

This equation can be modified in terms of density as V=1/D

Xm(%)= dc/da*do-da/dc-da*100

where,

dc = the densities of pure crystalline area.
da = the densities of amorphous area.

Density of pure crystalline and pure amorphous areas:


Sr.No
Fibers
Dc(G/Cc)
Da(G/Cc)
1.
Polyethylene
1.000
0.852
2.
Polypropylene
0.937
0.854
3.
Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)
1.455
1.335
4.
Poly(Butylene Terephthalate)
1.396
1.280
5.
Polyamide 6
1.230
1.089
6.
Polyamide 6.6
1.220
1.069
Liquids used in Density Gradient Column:
Sr.No
Liquid
Density(gm/m)
1.
Ethanol
0.79
2.
Isopropanal
0.79
3.
Methanol
0.80
4.
Xylene
0.86
5.
Toluene
0.87
6.
Benzyl Alcohol
0.92
7.
Water
1.00
8.
Diethylene Glycol
1.11
9.
Sodium Bromide
1.41
10.
Carbon Tetrachloride
1.59
11.
Calcium Nitrate
1.60
12.
1,3-Dibromopropane
1.99
13.
Ethylene Bromide
2.18
14.
Bromoform
2.89
Crystal structure of cellulose:


Sr.No
Cellulose
Alfa
Beta
C
Beta
1.
Cellulose i
8.35
10.3
7.9
84
2.
Cellulose ii
8.10
10.3
9.1
62
3.
Cellulose iii
7.74
10.3
9.9
58
4.
Cellulose iv
8.11
10.3
7.9
90
5.
Types Of Bond
Hydrogen
Co-Valent Vander Walls


6.
Stability(Kcal/Mole)
15
50
08

Formation of hydrates by different alkalies:
Sr.No
Types Of Hydrates
Hydrodynamic Diameter(Mm)
          Concentration Of



NaOH (%)
KOH
 (%)
LiOH
(%)
1.
Dipole Hydrate
0.5-0.8
30-70%
40-75%
20-60%
2.
Solvated Dipole Hydrate
0.8-1.0
16-30%
30-40%
9-20%
3.
Hydrated Ion Pair
1.0-1.5
6-15%
7-30%
5-6%
Staple length of Commercial Cotton:
Sr.No
Commercial Cotton
Staple Length
1.
Sea Island Cotton
Around 5 cm
2.
Egyptian Cotton
Between 3.7-4.5 cm
3.
Brazilian Cotton
Between 3-4 cm
4.
American Cotton
Between 2.5-3.5 cm
5.
Indian Cotton
Between 2-3 cm
6.
China Cotton
Between 1.5-2 cm Only
Chemical composition of Dry Cotton:
Sr.No
Chemicals
Composition (%)
1.
Cellulose
88-97%
2.
Protein
1-2%
3.
Oil And Wax
0.4-1.5%
4.
Pectins
0.4-1.5%
5.
Minerals
0.7-1.6%
6.
Others
0.5-8.0%
Chemical composition of important Vegetable Fibers:
Sr.No
Fibers
Cellulose
Hemicellulose
Lignin
Pectin
Wax
Ash
Others
1.
1.Seed Hair Fibers:
Cotton
Kapok



93.0
64.0


2.6
23.0



13.0


0.9
23.0


0.6



1.2



1.7

2.
Bast Fibers:
Jute
Flax
Ramie


71.5
71.2
74.4
76.2


13.3
18.6
17.9
14.6


13.1
2.2
3.7
0.7


0.2
2.0
0.8
2.1


0.6
2.3
0.8
0.3


1.0
1.3




0.3
2.6
2.3
6.1
3.
Leaf Fibers:
Sisal
Pineapple
/Manila Hemp

73.1

70.2

13.3

21.8

11.0

5.7

0.9

0.6

0.3

0.2


1.4

1.5
4.
Husk Fibers:
Coir

44.2

0.8

45.8

4.0



5.2
RETTING OF FIBERS:

Duration of retting of JUTE FIBERS:

Sr.No
Process
Duration
1.
Dew Retting
7-15 Days
2.
Stagnant Water Retting
10-20 Days
3.
Running Water Retting
22-30 Days
4.
Chemical Retting
6-8 Days

Duration of retting of FLAX FIBERS:

Sr.No
Process
Duration
1.
Dew Retting
10-20 Days
2.
Stagnant Water Retting
30-40 Days
3.
Running Water Retting
20-30 Days
 
Composition of proteins in different Fibers:

Sr.No
Proteins
Composition(%)
1.
Carbon
45-55%
2.
Hydrogen
6-8%
3.
Oxygen
19-30%
4.
Nitrogen
15-20%
5.
Others
0-5%
SILK FIBER:

Different chemicals in Silk:

Sr.No

Mulberry Silk
Tassar Silk
Muga Silk
Eri Silk
1.
Fibroin
70-80%
80-90%
80-90%
80-90%
2.
Sericine
20-30%
8-10%
8-10%
4-5%
3.
Other
2-3%
3-5%
3-9%
3-5%
Both Fibroin and Sericine contain similar type of amino acids. The compositions of C, H, N, O varies little between fibrons and sericines.

Sr.No

Fibers(%)
Sericine(%)
1.
C
47.6%
46.5%
2.
H
6.4%
6.0%
3.
N
18.3%
16.5%
4.
O
27.7%
31.0%
FIBROIN:
The fibroin i.e the main part of silk is made up series of different amino acids. The most important is SERICINE, ALANINE and GLYCINE. The important acids are:


Sr.No

 %
1.
Glycine
36.8%
2.
Alanine
22.2%
3.
Serine
11.4%
4.
Tyrosine
11.1%
5.
Leucine
1.5%
6.
Proline
1.0%
7.
Valine
2.7%
8.
Phenytalanine
1.5%
9.
Histidine
0.1%
10.
Lysine
0.2%
11.
Threonine
1.3%
12.
Arginine
0.9%
The approximate composition of different amino acid in fibroin from wild silks are as follow:

Sr.No

%
1.
Glycine
20-30%
2.
Alanine
35-40%
3.
Serine
10-15%
4.
Tyrosine
8-10%
5.
Arginine
9-13%
6.
Threonine
5-10%
7.
Lysine
5-7%
SERCINE:

Sr.No

Mulberry Silk
Wild Silk
1.
Lysine
20-30%
20-30%
2.
Serine
16-20%
7-16%
3.
Glycine
8-10%
10-20%
4.
Aspartic Acid
8-12%
7-10%
5.
Glumatic Acid

4-6%
6.
Arginine

5-15%
7.
Threonine
4-6%
3-10%
8.
Histidine
4-6%
3-6%
9.
Tyrosine

4-6%

TEXTILE FIBER DENSITIES:


Sr.No
Textile Fibers
Fiber Densities (g/cm3)
1.
Cotton
1.54
2.
Flax
1.50
3.
Jute
1.50
4.
Wool
1.30
5.
Silk
1.60
6.
Polyester
1.22
7.
Viscose
1.53
8.
Cuprammonium
1.53
9.
Polyurethane
1.15
10.
Polypropylene
0.90
11.
Polyethylene
0.92
12.
Nylon 6
1.13
13.
Nylon 66
1.14
14.
Acrylic
1.14-1.17
15.
Polyvinyl Alcohol
1.30

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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