UV Protection for Summer Wear Using Green Technique

UV Protection for Summer Wear Using Green Technique
Mr. M.Ponmaniselvam
M.Tech, Dept of Textile Chemistry
SSM College of Engineering
Komarapalayam - 638 183, India.
Email: ponmaniselvam20@gmail.com &
Mrs. N.Vaneeswari
Asst. Professor, Dept of Textile Chemistry
SSM College of Engineering
Komarapalayam - 638 183, India.


Abstract
Body armour technologists over the year are seeking to develop protective systems, especially the harmful effects of UV radiation can be substantially alleviated by wearing heavy weight garments or by using sun creams. However, these materials are very expensive and have certain weight constraints. Therefore, there is a growing demand in the marketplace for apparels that offers comfort and protection from UV-A and UV-B radiation. This study aims to ascertain the ultraviolet rays’ protection ability to the fabric and focuses on the UV transmission of cotton fabric, commonly used textile summer with application of UV absorbers using herbal extracts from Green tea, Chamomile, and Beetroot.

The UPF (Ultraviolet Protection Factor) of fabrics are determined by using UV-VIS spectrophotometrically for untreated grey fabric and UV absorbers treated fabrics. As a result, UV absorbers treated fabrics have good UV protection. Based on result, best herbal extract approach was used to impart UPF of lightweight knitwear fabrics have been suggested against UV radiation.

Introduction
UV protective garments developed by using the combined theories and concepts of alternate medical concepts have immense medical value and it is a genuine answer to pollution and artificial textiles. While development such kind of fabric, all stages of processing are done in eco-friendly way for natural UV absorber finishes. It also safeguards the environment, prevents pollution and promotes eco-friendly textiles to ensure that reach to individual and to mass and generate true awareness.

The fabrics can be used which naturally has anti-ultraviolet protection to some extent. The natural sources which have high antioxidant content offer good UV protection. In that category, three natural sources are selected which have combined effect of colors and good fragrance.

It is known that ultraviolet radiation is harmful to human. The ultraviolet light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than x-rays, in the range 10nm to 400nm, and energies from 3 eV to 124eV. It is so named, because the spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the color violet.

Methodology

Identification of UV Absorber

Padding technique

Extraction

Tests

UPF test – (untreated, treated fabric)

Selection of Natural UV Absorber

Green tea
Green Tea
Fig: Green Tea
Botanical name: Theaceae
Family : Sinensis
Parts used : Leaves

Source
It is a large shrub with white flowers and is indigenous to Asia and China, but commercially grown in Africa, Srilanka, Malaysia and Indonesia.

Composition
The tannins interact with proteins and are astringent and also have antioxidant activity. One of the polyphenols in green tea – epigallocatechin galate (EGCG) is thought to be 200 times more powerful than Vitamin E for neutralizing free radicals. It contains caffeine as well as triterpene saponins, carotenoids and non-protein amino acids (theanine, 2-amino-6-ethylamidoadipinic acid).

Epigallocatechin galate (EGCG) Properties
  • EGCG is a type of catechin
  • Found in tea and other plants
  • It is a powerful antioxidant
  • It inhibits the growth of cancer cells
  • It has been effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels
  • It also inhibits the abnormal formation of blood clots.
Chemical formula: C22H18O11
Chemical structure of Epigallocatechin galate
Fig: Chemical structure of Epigallocatechin galate
Beetroot
Beetroot
Fig: Beetroot
Botanical name: Beta vulgaris
Family : Sinensis
Parts used : Vegetable

Source and description
The red beet, commonly known as garden beet, is a juicy root vegetable. It is distinguished by its individual flavor. It is more colorful than other root vegetables. Beets have several varieties, which are grouped according to their shapes. They are flat, short top shaped, deep oblate to round , globular to oval, and half long. The two varieties, most commonly grown in India are crimson globe and Detroit dark red, both belonging to the globular to oval group.

Composition
It has contain betacyanin and various other types of nutrition such as vitamins, minerals, iron, zinc, calcium, sodium, carbohydrates, proteins, folacin, niacin and more.

Betacyanin properties
  • Betacyanin is the pigment that gives beets their rich purple-crimson colour.
  • It is a powerful anti-oxidant
  • It is used as a natural food dye
  • It is a powerful cancer-fighting agent
  • It can increase the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood by up to 400 percent.
  • They help in normalizing blood pressure.
Chemical formula: C15H24O
Chemical structure of betacyanin
Fig: Chemical structure of betacyanin
Chamomile
Chamomile
Fig: Chamomile
Botanical name: Anthemis nobilis
Family : N.O. Compositae
Parts used : Flower

Source and description
The plant produces a round, furrowed, and branched stem which grows one to two feet in height. The leaves are pale green, incised, and sessile, with thread- shaped leaflets. The flower heads consists of yellow disk flowers and white petal-shaped ray flowers that are bent downward to make the disk flowers more prominent part is the flower.

Composition
It has contained Flavonoids, coumarins, essential, oils and polysaccharides are characteristic compound in the chemical composition of chamomile.

Flavonoid properties

1. Flavonoids are the most important plant pigments for flower coloration.
2. It produces yellow or red with blue pigmentation in petals designed to attract pollination animals.
3. Also helps in following
  • Anti-oxidant activities
  • Anti-allergic activities
  • Anti-inflammatory activities
  • Anti-microbial activities
  • Anti-cancer activities
Chemical formula: C15H10O7
Chemical structure of Flavonoid
Fig: Chemical structure of Flavonoid
Extraction Method
  • About 100 grams of each one of green tea leaves, beetroot, and chamomile flowers are taken separately.
  • 250ml of water is taken (approximately twice the amount of material)
  • Boiled for 15 minutes till it reaches the boiling temperature.
  • It’s then filtered and the extract is taken out separately.
Padding Technique
Padding is a method adopted to apply the herbal extracts onto the fabric and give them the required properties. Padding mangle is used for this process.

Testing Instrument
  • UV transmittance analyzer
  • UV-visible spectrophotometer (or) spectroradiometer
  • These have use of flash xenon lamp, it has provided to be the best alternative for reproduction of natural sunlight.
Testing Standard
  1. This standard test method AATCC 183:2004 is used to determine the ultraviolet radiation blocked or transmitted by textile fabrics intended to be used for UV protection.
  2. This method provides procedures for measuring this fabric property with specimen in either the dry or wet states.
Fabric Particulars
S.No.
Fabric Particulars
Data
1.
Type of fabric
Knitted
2.
Structure of fabric
Single jersey or Plain knit
3.
Yarn count
22’s CB (100% Organic cotton)
4.
Wales per inch
27
5.
Course per inch
52
6.
GSM
160
Knitted Fabric Structure
The simplest and the most widely used weft knit fabric is single jersey or plain knit fabric. It contains of face loop stitches only.

Plain knit fabric structure
Fig: Plain knit fabric structure
Knitted Fabric Properties
  • Stretchable
  • Absorbent
  • Light in weight
  • Figure – hugging yet comfortable
  • Wrinkle resistant
  • Recover 40% after stretching
  • The thickness of the plain knit structure usually equal to two times the diameter of the yarn.
  • Finally the plain knit fabrics have more width wise stretch ability than length wise. So the plain knit fabrics are widely used for underwear, gloves, hosiery, sweaters and summer wear applications.
Conclusion
In this study, the UV transmission of cotton fabrics using natural sources was investigated. The untreated fabrics (woven/knitted) have high UV transmission and, therefore, little protection. However, when treated with natural agents, the fabrics could provide better protection than grey fabrics. From the three sources identified, the green tea extracts offer good protection, compared to others. Chamomile stands second in the protection level; this in addition gives fragrance finish to the fabric, thereby used in garments. Beetroot offers least protection giving a dark shade suitable for home textile products.

Bibliography
  1. Joshi M., G.V.R. Reddy, “UV Protection Textiles” – options and opportunities”, Asian Dyer. 2005 (9-10) 76-81.
  2. Dayal A., Aggarwal A.K., “Textiles and UV Protection”, Asian Textile Journal 1998 (9) 62-68
  3. Rupp J., Bohringer A., Yonenaga A., Hilden J., “Textiles for protection Against Harmful Ultraviolet Radiation”, International Textile Bulletin 2001 (6) 8-20
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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