Application of Textiles in Civil Engineering

APPLICATIONS OF TEXTILES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Miss. Mrudula Zalte1 and Miss. Anuja Patil2
D.K.T.E Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji , India.
Email: zaltem2000@gmail.com1
        anuja3130@gmail.com2


ABSTRACT
Textile is no more used only for interior or apparel application like carpets, curtains or shirting and suiting but also used in civil engineering for temporary as well as permanent structures. Current era we are more focused in construction, houses and building designs have more sunlight, greener, high performance, cost saving and sustainable structure. To fulfill that requirements textile play a fundamental role. Textile used in buildtech, geotextiles, architectural, green roofs and new development of 3d printer for houses. The reinforcement of construction parts for structural and civil engineering applications with textiles offers many opportunities including the manufacture of very thin materials, and the ability of manufacture structural parts with complex shapes. The basic materials and manufacturing techniques used for reinforcing textile are summarized. Textile fabric made from glass, aramide, or carbon fibers crosslink with resign to made composites have high modulus, high strength and high mechanical properties that enable textile materials to use in civil engineering applications. These materials have high strength and stiffness with respect to weight and provide great flexibility in design and use to engineer textile reinforce concrete (TRC) composite material with performance similar to steel reinforced concrete, giving light weight structures with high durability and high quality surface. Textiles have increased usage indoor and outdoor for surface and hidden applications. Textile traditional use in houses but textile is also used in acoustic and thermal insulation, protection of building against some wind, fire, water. Textile fibers are used with concrete to enrich its properties and lowering the cost and protection against UV and electromagnetic radiation.

KEY WORDS: Civil engineering, Technical textile, Buildtech, Geosynthetic, Reinforcement.

1. INTRODUCTION
Textile is very conventional and never ending field. Textile is one of important part of our daily life. Initially textile was used only for clothing and household purpose but this field has expanded a lot not only in applications but also in technical textiles. A technical textile is used in civil engineering, buildtech, geotextiles, architectural and green roofs. textile contributes itself in minor as well as major things. Wovens, nonwovens and knitted yarn and fabrics are widely used. Textile fiber composite is also used for civil engineering.
 
Technical textile are usually applied in following 12 main areas:
  1. Agrotech 
  2. Hometech 
  3. Oekotech
  4. Buildtech 
  5. Indutech 
  6. Packtech
  7. Clothtech 
  8. Mobiltech 
  9. Protech
  10. Smarttech
  11. Geotech 
  12. Medtech 
  13. Sportech
1.1 CIVIL ENGINEERING:
It is abroad field of engineering that deals with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or civilization and their processes. Most civil engineering today deals with power plants, bridges, roads, railways, water supply, irrigation, transportation, telecommunications, etc. It is broadest and oldest of engineering fields.

We are now going to deal with applications used in civil engineering which is mainly divided in two categories:
  • BUILDTECH
  • GEOTEXTILE
1.1.1 BUILDTECH:
Textile is also one of the oldest and well developed field all over the globe. Now a days, textile is widely used in civil engineering due to their special properties like high strength ,modulus, elongation. Also prevent from UV rays, sound, radiation special textile material is used during construction of buildings.
Textile used in civil engineering
Fig.1. Textile used in civil engineerin
1.1.1 GEOTEXTILE:
Geotextile is the combination of two words ‘geo’ comes from the Greek word meaning ‘earth’ and textile. Geotextile defined as “any permeable textile material used for filtration, drainage, separation, reinforcement and stabilization purpose as an integral part of civil engineering structures of earth, rock, other constructional materials”.

“Geosynthetic is a product which is used in contact with soil and other materials in geotechnical and civil engineering”. Textile is used for rail buildings, road, dam, canal, drainage, landfill, soil separation, etc.

2. RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING:
Different types of material like natural as well as synthetic are used as raw material for technical textile.

Table 1. Raw material used in civil engineering
Materials
Properties
Application
Natural fiber


Ramie
Silky luster, highest tenacity
Building construction
Jute
Specific  tenacity, porocity,
Permeability,transmissibility

Control soil erosion, wall cavities
Flax
Flexible, dries quickly, anti-static
Used where more friction happen
Coir
Strength, toughness, absorb
Solar radiation
Used in building wall cavities, areas of erosion control, house wrap
Synthetic fiber


Polyster
Strength modulus, Elasticity, chemical inertness
House wrap (high resistance to UV rays)
Polyamides
More strength but less moduli than PP and polyester
For construction
Polypropylene
Good resistance to acid and alkaline, strong, light in weight
Geo membrane, basement
Aramid Filament
High tenacity, high resistance to chemicals, to stretch, to temperature
Wall cavity, reinforcement
Polyethylene (PE)
High strength
In geotextile
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Thermoplastic
Used in geo membrane
HDPE (high density polyethylene)
 high tenacity and modulus, lighter than water
Reinforcement
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
Superior breaking tenacity and Creep
Used for reinforcement,
3. MARKET SCOPE FOR BUILDTECH (VALUE IN RUPEES CRORES):

TABLE 2. Market value for buildtech (value in rupees crores)

Production
 Import
Export
Domestic
Consumption
2007-2008
Domestic
consumption
2012-2013
Export potential
Architectural membranes
1
15
-
16
40
-
Hoardings ,sinage’s
14
161
-
375
258
-
Canvas Cotton  tarpaulins
396
66
5
457
336
5.5
HDPE tarpaulins
650
1.75
1.25
650
1.330
1.4
Awnings and canopies
1.75
0.5
-
2.25
4.5
-
Scaffolding nets
0.58
-
-
0.58
1.17
-
Floor and wall
750
100
425
425
685
570
Total
1.813
344
431
1.726
2.655
577
4. MANUFACTURING OF GEOTEXTILE FABRIC:
Textile made natural or synthetic permeable resources, used with base soil, rock and other geotechnical material. the geotextile are further prepared in three categories:

4.1 WOVEN FABRICS:
Woven geotextile are manufactured weaving technology as standard clothing textile. Geosynthetics are of woven type, which can be subdivided into categories based upon their method of manufacture. this type has characteristic appearance of two sets of parallel threads of yarn that is warp and weft. Geotextile it is compose of two sets of parallel yarns. Interlaced to form a planner structure which include multifilament woven, monofilament woven, slit film woven.

4.2 NONWOVEN FABRIC:
Nonwoven manufactured from either short staple fiber or continuous filament yarn .the fiber can be bonded by thermal, chemical, mechanical or mechanical techniques. Fibers are bonded together into a planar structure, which include following:
  • Nonwoven mechanically needle punched
  • Nonwoven heat set.
  • Staple fiber and continuous filament fiber
4.3 KNITTED FABRIC:
Interlocking a series of loops of yarn together. All of knitted geo-synthetics are formed by using the knitting technique in conjunction with some method of geo-synthetic manufacturer. knitted geotextile are subset to woven geotextile and are found as filters on pipes in two stage filter. multilayer geotextiles re formed by bonding together nonwoven or woven geotextile. They give high protection geotextile.

PET and PP are mostly used synthetic in civil engineering.

WHY PET IS MORE PREFERABLE THAN PP IN CIVIL APPLICATIONS?

Table 3.PET property and it’s uses
PET PROPERTIES
USES
Breaking load not less than 10kN/m
Minimum failure strain of 10%
Apparent opening size 0.22mm-0.43 as soil properties
Allow water flow at the rate not less than 10lit/sqm/sec
Minimum tear resistance of 150N



Subsurface drains
Strength : min 10 kN/m
Elongation: max 15 %            
Aperture : Rectangular, square or oval

Protection work
Prevent storm water from transporting sediment offsite
Low elongation important for more support
Filtration and tensile strength property
Light weight woven geotextile


Silt fence
Prevent sub grade from intermixing with base course.
Alternate to undercutting
Low elongation for higher modulus

Roadway separation /stabilization
5. SOME CERTIFICATIONS FOR THE TEXTILES THAT USED IN CONSTRUCTION:
  • CE:-Marketing of textile, resilient and laminate floor coverings, wall coverings
  • Oeko-tex standard 100:-Absence of harmful substances
  • Gut:-Eco-friendly carpet production
  • IGI:-Quality mark for wall coverings
6. PROPERTIES OF TEXTILE REQUIRE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING:

Table 4. Properties of textile require in civil engineering
PHISICAL  PROPERTIES
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES
DEGRADATION PROPERTIES
ENDURANCE PROPERTIES
Specific gravity
Tenacity
Porosity
Biodegradation
Elongation
Light weight
Tensile strength
Permeability
Chemical degradation
Abrasion resistance
Stiffness
Bursting strength
Permittivity
Photo and hydrolytic degradation
Clogging length and flow
Density
Drapability
Soil retention



Flexibility
Filtration length



Tearing strength




Frictional resistance



7. NEW/MODERN APPLICATION OF TEXTILE IN BUILDTECH:

7.1 NANO TEXTILE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING:
In buildtech and geotextiles, nanotechnology play a vital role in a different way. Nanotechnology improve existing textile properties & offered additional functional performance by increasing chemical, mechanical, biological & photochemical properties. In buildtech the nano fibers and nano tubes are used to made, lighter & stronger, concrete materials which run longer & more capable to resist strong shocks generated by earthquakes Also provide thermal insulation, controlled light transmission. "An example is the seismic wallpaper composite concept, based on a reinforced textile composite system, combining different materials like multiaxial, warp knitted glass and polymer fibers, nano particle-enhanced coatings for the textile fabric, nano particle-enhanced mortar to bond the textile to the structure, and fiber-optic sensors. The seismic wallpaper is now past the prototype phase taking the first steps towards commercialization". .

7.1.1 Application of Nanotechnology in Building:
  • self-healing concrete 
  • wrapping of existing columns
  • protection against earthquake 
  • reinforcement of critical walls
  • explosive incidents and protection purpose 
  • localized crack repair
7.2 Architectural Textile
Majority of people spend one or more nights in tent & get advantage from protection offered by its fabric. Textiles are light weight, easy to handling, flexibility and they provide protection against wind, U.V radiations, snow and rain. such as self-cleaning, odor control, thermal insulation and lightness. Hence textile elements require a great engineering skills.
textile sculpture by Snohetta
Fig:2 'Tubaloon' textile sculpture by Snohetta for the Kongsberg Jazz Festival; Photo © Snohetta
In past few years, the use of textile materials in architectural membranes resulted in the construction of as airports and sports stadiums, provide much lighter and functional properties. Sun and weather protection as well as light and temperature regulation are the main requirements for textiles applications in new sports stadium" Around 80% of newly built or refurbished stadiums worldwide have textile roofs and/or claddings". Another textiles application in architecture is inflatable buildings. With respect to textile materials useful in architecture, the most used are fibers are polyamide, polyethylene, polyester, glass, and optical fiber. For architectural membranes, textile structures are impregnated with polymers such as P. V. C, silicone and PTFE.

8. APPLICATION OF TEXTILE CIVIL ENGINEERING:
  • River bank protection, railway
  • Sea coastal protection, dams, soil separation
Some applications of textile used in civil engineering
Fig 3. Some applications of textile used in civil engineering
Some other applications of textile in geotextile
Fig 4. Some other applications of textile in geotextile
8.1 Knitted fabric property and application:

Table 5.knitted fabric property and application
Type of knit fabric
Property
Application
Multiaxial warp knit
More load bearing capacity, dimensional stability more.
Reinforcement
Flat weft knit
High strength t, toughness, porocity
Wall cavities, house wrap, control soil erosion
Two dimensional knit
Drain of surface water
Drainage mats
Three dimensional knit
Strength, vapoure  permeable, water permeable
House wrap, noise insulting screens (tennis courts)oil absorption mats
Knit made with flat, transverse slats
High reflective power, mechanical strength and fire resistance
Thermal insulation panel for veranda
8.1.1. ADVANTAGE OF KNITTED FABRIC CIVIL ENGINEERING:
  • They are light than woven fabric using same yarn. easy handling ,laying on construction sites, thus transport and labor costs reduce.
  • It has exeptional tear strength. But designed and built such that it give additional strenght.eg,500k Nm warp and 500k Nm.
  • It can incorporate an additional fabric to form a true composite geotextile, the fabric simply knitted –in.
  • The individual yarns in the warp and weft knitted insertion geotextile are straight when incorporated, so they are able to take –up the strain on loading .
8.2. APPLICATION OF NONWOVENS IN CIVIL APPLICATION:
Some examples where mostly nonwovens are used building engineering:
  • Insulation (thermal and noise) house wrap
  • Pipe wrap
  • Foundations and ground stabilization
  • Underlay composites
  • Vertical drainage
Non- perforated, nonwoven polymeric house wrap decreases air infiltration, resulting in increased energy efficiency and maximum moisture control, while providing savings for the builder and homeowner during installation and after-sale.
Geogrid fabric
Fig 5. Geogrid fabric
8.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF NONWOVEN:
  • High moisture and vapoure permeability
  • Excellent durability
  • High tensile energy absorbency
  • Sound insulation
  • Superior tear strength
  • Multi-directional elongation
  • High UV stability
  • High tensile energy absorbency
CONCLUSION:
Textile used in civil engineering for mainly for buildtech and geotextile. Textile have properties required for civil engineering like high strength, high modulus, porocity, permeability, elongation, durability, protection from UV rays, noise, other radiation, etc. the benefits of using textile material in civil engineering are potentials of textile fibers to create a lot of applications, which are profitable in products for cost ,durability and environmental aspects as well. Woven, non-woven, knitted fabric is used for civil engineering. Textile used in civil engineering for house wrap, building wall cavities, for basement of building, etc. Also in geotextile for reinforcement railway, soil separate, road stabilization, bridges, dams, geo membrane. Now a days, nano-textile in civil engineering plays important role. Nanotechnology existing textile properties and offered functional performance. In buildtech the nano fibers and nano tubes are used to made lighter and stronger, concrete materials which run longer and resist strong shocks generate by earthquakes Also used for architectural textile.

REFERANCES:
  1. Textile in house building and civil applications by Ali Hassnain Farrukh
  2. Nonwoven textiles by Jiri Chaloupek
  3. Civil engineering textile
  4. Geotextile: It’s application to civil engineering-overview
  5. http://www.indiantextilejournal.com 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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