How to Improve Productivity and Saving Cost in Sewing Department

A STUDY ON IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND SAVING COST IN THE SEWING DEPARTMENT
S.VIJAYAKUMAR,
M.TECH TEXTILE CHEMISTRY,
SSM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOMARAPLAYAM.
Email: vijaykpm.s@gmail.com
&
MR. P.MAHESWARAN 
M.TECH., ASSISTANT PROFESSOR,
DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE CHEMISTRY,
SSM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,
KOMARAPALAYAM,NAMAKKAL-638183.



ABSTRACT
The project has been undertaken at DINESH GARMENTS, TIRUPPUR. Which is engaged in the manufacturing of garments for men’s and women’s wear & kids garments. Apparel production, also known as garment production is a process where fabric is being converted into garments. The term apparel production is basically used when garments are manufactured in a factory.

The project is deals with improving the productivity and saving the cost. Emphasizing on it steps has been taken to investigate and eliminate non productive activities in sewing section in order to save time and cost and lessen internal process time. In this work, an approach to a more knowledge-based and integrated process planning and control is presented. The outcome of this observation reflected that an industry may gain higher productivity and profitability by eliminating non productive activities. A general overview over this development is given in this project.

Keywords - Costs, Productivity, Profitability, Standard allowed minute (SAM).

CHAPTER-1

1.1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT TEXTILE AND APPAREL INDUSTRY:
The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. Its contribution to the Indian economy is great in terms of its contribution to the industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. It contributes 20 percent of industrial production, 9 percent of excise collections, and 18 percent of employment in the industrial sector, nearly 20 percent to the country’s total export earning and 4 percent to the Gross Domestic Product.

India’s garment industry is characterized with fragmented structure having large number of units capable of producing small order sizes. However there are many units with substantial investments and fully integrated.

The worldwide apparel industry is one of the most important sectors of the economy with regard to investment, revenue, trade and employment generation all over the world. The apparel industry in India has substantially diversified on the basis of fashion, climate, region, culture and fiscal factors. Indian textile is witnessing great growth and development in the industrial sector in India as well as abroad. The significance of the apparel industry is entirely based on the contribution of the industrial productivity and employment. Apparel sector in totality contributes to the country's GDP after agriculture. The important segments covered in apparel industry include home decor and furnishings along with clothing and fashion accessories for kids, women and men

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT:
Generally in an industry more focus is given on profit. Though there are different costs involved and cost reduction internally spent by an industry through reducing wastages, avoiding and improving faulty work would enhance profitability. Non productive activities designate that the customer does not ponder as adding value to his product (for example, relax,rest,waiting time, inspection time, zigzag movement due to improper lay out, improper line balancing, no proper planning, improper machine use, sharing of working instruments, absence of operators, workers’ fatigue etc. One of the ways to decrease wastages can be elimination of non productive activities that can result in drop in time, cost, and lead time. As it is acknowledged from famous Russian proverb Time is Money, if production time is reduced the company can capitalize less money and more savings.

1.3 COMPANY PROFILE:
Set up in 2007 in a small way at Tirupur, the knitwear capital of India, Dinesh Garments has made great strides to become a name to reckon, with an annual turnover of 100crores.

The customers include Suncity- France, Next-UK Sergent major-US.

Mr. Dinesh, the founder-chairman of Dinesh Garments is a visionary with over 15years of experience in knitwear. Dinesh Garments strength lies in greater transparency, timely delivery and customer service.

The Dinesh Garments has all departments that are required for an apparel industry as Knitting, Cutting, Printing, Sewing, labeling, Ironing & Packing.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:
  • To analyze the sewing process through the application of Time Study method.
  • To find production status of the line and the reasons for low productivity in sewing department and analysis the cost of the product.
  • To implement the idea, so as reduce the non-productivity in sewing that will result in improvement of productivity in sewing department and saving the time and cost of organization.
1.5 NEED FOR THE STUDY:
Dinesh garments faces the problems of sewing line efficiency and its sewing line productivity is less than industrial norm. The management of the company says that the target achieved by sewing department was not satisfactory requires a through study analysis of line efficiency and labour performance.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
  • The study helps the organization to improving productivity
  • The study helps the organization saving the cost and time in sewing department.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
  • There are 4 different orders taken and has been analyzed.
  • Study has been conducted with the available group of workers and all workers are not covered.

CHAPTER – 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 PRODUCTION:
Production is an organized activity of transforming raw materials into finished products. It is an intentional act of producing something useful. In production systems we have different resources as input. The inputs are processed in a series of operations. The sequence, number, and type of operations are specified for each input. The output of the system will be complete parts products etc. Production function shows the relationship between the input and the output of an organization. Study of production function the maximum output which can be achieved with given inputs, or say resources with a given state of technology is determined.

The production function can be represented by the simple mathematical equation which relates the outputs as the function of inputs , that is

Y = f (X1, X2, …., Xn)

Where Y = units of output, which is the function of the quantity of two or more inputs

X1 = unit of labor, and

X2 = unit of machinery, and so on. Some quantities of production are assumed as fixed, that is not varying with change of output, and such quantities never enter in the equation.

2.1.1 PRODUCTIVITY:
It is a very comprehensive concept, both in its aim and also in its operational content. It is a matter of common knowledge that higher productivity leads to a reduction in cost of production, reduces the sales price of an item, expands markets, and enables the goods to compete effectively in the world market. It yields more wages to the workers, shorter working hours and greater leisure time for the employees. In fact the strength of a country, prosperity of its economy, standard of living of the people and the wealth of the nation are very largely determined by the extent and measure of its production and productivity. By enabling an increase in the output of goods or services for existing resources, productivity decreases the cost of goods per unit, and makes it possible to sell them at lower prices, thus benefiting the consumers while at the same time leaving a margin for increase in the wages of the workers.

Productivity can be defined in many ways. Some of them are as follows:
  • Productivity is nothing but the reduction in wastage of resources such as labor, machines,materials, power, space, time, capital, etc. 
  • Productivity can also be defined as human endeavor (effort) to produce more and more with less and less inputs of resources so that the products can be purchased by a large number of people at affordable price. 
  • Productivity implies development of an attitude of mind and a constant urge to find better, cheaper, easier, quicker, and safer means of doing a job, manufacturing a product and providing service. 
  • Productivity aims at the maximum utilization of resources for yielding as many goods and services as possible, of the kinds most wanted by consumers at lowest possible cost. 
  • Productivity processes more efficient works involving less fatigue to workers due to improvements in the layout of plant and work, better working conditions and simplification of work. In a wider sense productivity may be taken to constitute the ratio of all available goods and services to the potential resources of the group.
2.1.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY:
As discussed earlier, production is an organized activity of transforming raw materials into finished products which have higher value. Production of any commodity or service is the volume of output irrespective of the quantity of resources employed to achieve the level of output. Production in an industry can be increased by employing more labor, installing more machinery, and putting in more materials, regardless of the cost of production.

But increase of production does not necessarily mean increase in productivity. Higher productivity results when we put in production system an element of efficiency with which the resources are employed.

The combined input of a number of factors such as land, materials, machines, capital, and labor gives an output in an industry. The ratio between output and one of these factors of input is usually known as productivity of the factor considered. Productivity may also be considered as a measure of performance of the economy as a whole.
  • Mathematically, Productivity = Output Value/Input Value
  • Factor Productivity = Output due to the factor/ Input factor employed
2.1.3 WORKER EFFICIENCY:
A measure of worker performance that compares standard time allowed completing a task (lines)to the actual worker time to complete it.

To find out each operator's efficiency we have calculate.(Standard allowed minute) efficiency.

2.2 TIME STUDY:
The time study is considered to be one of the most widely used means of work measurement. Basically, by using time study, an analysis will be taking a small sample of a single worker’s activity and it to derive a standard for task of that nature.(Frederick Taylor)

Time study is the procedure used to determine the time should take well trained, qualified person working at normal place, using a specific method to do a specific task.

To define time study another way, it can be said that time study is the systematic study for the purpose of:
  • Developing the preferred method and system usually the most efficient.
  • Standardizing this system and method with all applicable employees.
  • Provide the formats to train all the applicable workers in the preferred method.
  • Then for purposes of quota and or rate setting, determining the time required by a well trained qualified person, working at normal place, using the preferred method to do a specific task or operation.
2.2.1 BENEFITS OF TIME STUDY:
Progressive companies do not want to just purchase labour that would be measured only on the basis of time, such as hourly workers. The way to purchase labour is to purchase output or useful work. Time study is the cornerstone of the foundation of scientific management.

The benefits of properly executed time studies are as follow:
  • Provides decision making information on how to lower unit costs at all levels of production.
  • Shows how to get greater output from a given amount of resources.
  • Improves the scheduling of work by providing quotas.
  • Accurate standard provide the basis for further planning of money, manpower, machines and materials.
  • Since time study signifies positive change, it continually focuses attention on cost of reduction and control.
  • Provides a meaningful basis for price estimating.
  • Offers workers a definite stated objective of what is expected of them in a given period by stating what is expected from the average worker.
  • Helps in the solution of layout and materials handling problems by giving accurate figures for planning man or machine utilization.
  • Increases the market and or profit potential of the firm by helping to obtain lower unit costs
  • Aids in the preparation of budgets.
  • Provides cumulative guidelines for management to either meet or exceed standards of performance set for their span of control.
  • Places greater emphasis on quality by allowing payment to workers on only the output that meets the recorded standards.
  • By showing what is expected from the “average” worker, it allows individual to compare them to this average and set their own work pace. By allowing workers to do this they play large parts in determining their own take home pay.
2.2.2 SCOPE OF TIME STUDY:
Time study used for goal setting, rate setting and costing. Operational analysis or methods study is used for methods improvement.

Manual work is performed the problem is finding the most economical way to perform tasks .the question often asked is, how much work should be done in a given amount of time? Time study can that question. For the purpose of clarity when reference is made to time study it is meant to include the prior and necessary motion study.

2.2.3 STEPS TO PERFORM TIME STUDY:
To perform a good Time Study, first of all, procedure has to be as follows
  • Observe the operation
  • Find out if the operator are using the right work method
  • Ask the supervisor to explain our role to the operator
  • Adjust the work method in case of deviation
  • Observe the operation breakdown the operations into elements
  • Once ready prepare the time work study sheet
  • Evaluate the rating factor of each element
  • Register the rating factor under the column of each element
  • Take the readings per element
  • Calculate the study
2.2.4 TIME STUDY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS:
The success of time study is more affected by the abilities of the time study person than by the technique or tool used .proper time study equipment is simple and few pieces are required. The basic time study toolkit contains:
  • Stop watch
  • Time study forms
  • Ball point pen or hard pencil
  • Calculator.
The above includes only the bare essentials. A Only watch decimal minute snap back timer and the simplest of form will yield a result as multi-or-electronic watches in the hands of a competent practitioner. Big expensive time study equipment will not help improve methods, deal with people correctly, rate performance or improve our judgment.

2.2.5 TIME AND METHOD STUDY:
There are two main systems of primary work measurement in use. One depends upon the ability of a trained Work Study practitioner to decide what is the rate of working as well as time taken. This is known as Time Study. The other relies upon the methods used, on the understanding that, for a given method, there is only one standard time. The basic data, which refer to the movements which go to make up the method, were derived from extensive and controlled time studies. This is known as Pre-determined Motion Time Study or “PMTS”. (Benjamin W. Niebel)

2.2.6 STANDARD MINUTE VALUE (SMV)OR STANDARD ALLOWED MINUTE (SAM):
Industrial engineering, the standard time is the time required by an average skilled operator, working at a normal pace, to perform a specified task using a time study method. It includes appropriate allowances to allow the person to recover from fatigue and, where necessary, an additional allowance to cover contingent elements which may occur but have not been observed.

2.2.7 ALLOWANCES:
When a standard time is calculated not only the basic times but the allowances are used. Although they are built into the time for a single garment it is assumed that they represent activities which may take up to half an hour or so but which occur at intervals during the working day. It means that the number of garments produced during a study will be greater than that indicated by the standard minute value would suggest, since there will probably be few breaks during the recorded time.

Allowances are applied to compensate on the energy consumed by the employee and to facilitate calculations. This category varies from one factory to another depends on the environmental level and working minutes per day. Each factory should re-evaluate the percentage of the PFD and try to reduce as much as possible.

2.2.8 PERSONAL AND FATIGUE:
No one works hard all day. There are occasions when most people like to get up from their machines and take a break. You can’t expect operatives to go for long periods without going to the lavatory. The amount of time devoted to non-productivity activity will vary from person to person, as will the rate of which they work. This personal and fatigue allowance caters for both and ensures that proper incentives are combined with some freedom of action. This allowance is applied that proper incentives are combined with some freedom of action. This allowance is applied to all production operations but may be greater for heavy work than for light.

CHAPTER - 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION:
A time study of garment sewing elemental operation was conducted in production process of the Dinesh garment. The study is carried for the children garment wear produced by the company.

Based on the observed time for each element of sewing, Average Basic Time, Standard Allowable Minute for each operation is calculated as detailed in the following sections.

Subsequently the analysis of balance of work content among the workers of the Sewing Group is carried out so as to find the scope for improvement in productivity.

3.2 TYPE OF RESEARCH:
The type of research adopted is descriptive research quantitative in nature. Descriptive research is aimed to describe data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Here the research measures the time for performing various elemental operations involved in sewing garments so as to find the reason for low productivity.

3.3 DATA COLLECTION:
Data collection is a decisive step in the research process. The first hand data needed for this study was obtained through TIME Study of element of operations involved in sewing of garments. The timings are observed for the normal methods of operation carried out for each element of Sewing. The standard procedure followed for a Time Study using suitable stop watch is adopted for the study.

3.4 PRIMARY DATA SOURCE:
The primary data sources are
  • Observation of time in the execution of an element of a sewing process
3.5 SAMPLE SIZE:
Based on the past experience & practice of the company sampling size elementary operation is chosen. For the each element involved in the sewing of casual shirt of wills life club 10 readings were taken for Time of performing the operation.

3.6 CALCULATION OF SAM THROUGH TIME STUDY:

Step 1: Select one operation for which you want to calculate SAM.

Step 2: Take stop watch. Stand by side of the operator. Capture cycle time for that operation. (cycle time – total time taken to do all works needed to complete one operation, i.e. time from pick up part of first piece to next pick up of the next piece). Do time study for consecutive five cycles. Discard if found abnormal or non value added time in any cycle. Calculate average of the 5 cycles. From time study is called cycle time. Convert this cycle time into basic time by multiplying cycle time with operator performance rating.

Basic Time = Cycle Time X performance Rating

Step 3: Performance rating. Now you have to rate the operator at what performance level he was doing the job seeing his movement and work speed.

Step 4: Standard allowed minutes (SAM) = (Basic minute + Bundle allowances + machine and personal allowances). Add bundle allowances (10%) and machine and personal allowances (20%) to basic time. Similarly, for all the operation related to the above garments style standard allowed minute or SAM was calculated. The calculate SAM both for excluding and including non productive time. Productive and non productive activities in each steps wherever found was identified for the above process for each style and the SMV or SAM in minutes were noted. Finally the ultimate SMV variation was calculated.

3.7 PRODUCTION CALCULATION:
The production day is calculated using the derived SAM and total working hours per day of the company as given below

                                    Total production time
Production per day =………………………….. X Efficiency
                                             SAM

Total production time = No. of operator X Time

The above formula is used for calculation in the project.

3.8 GARMENT COSTING:
Calculated as follows

1. Production / day ……………………
2. Production/ month…………………..
3. Production / year……………………
4. Cost/garment………………………..
5. Total cost =No of process X cost/ garment

3.9 ELEMENTS OF OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE SEWING PROCESS OF BASIC LEGGING AS FOLLOW:
Front rise attached

Back rise attached

Lace ironing

Lace attached

Lace finishing

Elastic label attached in waist band

Inside finishing

Care label attached

Hemming on waist band

Peak on crotch and bottom of legging


CHAPTER – 4
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 ESTIMATION OF STANDARD ALLOWED MINUTE (SAM) IN INCLUDE/EXCLUDE NON PRODUCTIVITY (NP) ACTIVITIES:

SAMPLE-1
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2366
0.2093
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2002
0.1820
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.0910
0.0780
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0780
0.0650
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0650
0.0520
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2275
0.2002
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1170
0.0910
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2730
0.2356
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0910
0.0780
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1365
0.1092
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1638
0.1274
2
O/L

TOTAL
2.4796
2.2277
15

Table-4.1 Data collection sample-1

SAMPLE-2
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2466
0.2293
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2202
0.1920
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.0910
0.0780
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0780
0.0750
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0760
0.0620
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2175
0.2002
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1270
0.1000
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2730
0.2456
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0810
0.0780
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1265
0.1192
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1638
0.1574
2
O/L

TOTAL
2.5006
2.3367
15

Table-4.1.1 Data collection sample-2

SAMPLE-3
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2366
0.2193
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2102
0.1920
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.0910
0.0880
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0780
0.0750
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0650
0.0520
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2275
0.2102
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1170
0.0910
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2730
0.2556
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0910
0.0880
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1365
0.1192
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1638
0.1474
2
O/L

TOTAL
2.4896
2.3377
15

Table-4.1.2 Data collection sample-3

SAMPLE-4
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2566
0.2493
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2202
0.1920
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.1010
0.0980
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0980
0.0950
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0750
0.0720
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2175
0.2102
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1570
0.1410
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2830
0.2756
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0910
0.0880
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1565
0.1492
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1738
0.1674
2
O/L

TOTAL
3.0296
2.5377
15

Table-4.1.3 Data collection sample-4

SAMPLE-5
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2366
0.2293
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2202
0.1920
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.1010
0.0980
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0980
0.0850
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0750
0.0680
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2175
0.2002
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1570
0.1410
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2830
0.2656
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0910
0.0880
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1565
0.1392
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1738
0.1574
2
O/L

TOTAL
3.0096
2.4637
15

Table-4.1.5 Data collection sample-5

4.2 PRODUCTION ANALYSIS USING OBSERVED SAM VALUES INCLUDING NON-PRODUCTIVITY TIME:
Table-4.2 Production analysis using observed SAM values including NP time
Chart-4.2 Production analysis using observed SAM values including NP time
Chart-4.2 Production analysis using observed SAM values including NP time
OBSERVATION:
The above observed SAM value include non productivity results say that for average 2.68 SAM and corresponding production per hour for employee working at 60%,70%,80% & 90% efficiency will be 201,235,269,302 respectively.

4.2.1 PRODUCTION ANALYSIS USING OBSERVED SAM VALUES EXCLUDING NON-PRODUCTIVITY TIME:
Table-4.2.1 Production analysis using observed SAM values excluding NP time
Table-4.2.1 Production analysis using observed SAM values excluding NP time
Chart-4.2.1 Production analysis using observed SAM values excluding NP time
OBSERVATION:
The above observed SAM value include non productivity results say that for average 2.37 SAM and corresponding production per hour for employee working at 60%,70%,80% & 90% efficiency will be 227,266,303,341 respectively.

4.2.2 PRODUCTION ANALYSIS VARIABLE CHART:
Table-4.2.2 Production analysis
Chart- 4.2.2 Production analysis
OBSERVATION:
The above production analysis variable result say that for an efficiency of 60, 70, 80 & 90 the production variation between include and exclude NP output/hrs will be 26, 31, 34 and 39 respectively.

4.2.3 FINANCIAL CALCULATION:
In Dinesh garments average CMT cost for the above experimental style is considered as RS60 per piece.
Table- 4.2.3 financial calculation
Chart- 4.2.3 financial calculation
OBSERVATION;
The above financial results say that production variation in output/hrs 26, 31, 34 & 39 causing loss of about 4867000, 5803200, 6364800 & 7300800 per year respectively.

CHAPTER – 5
FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

FINDINGS

5.1 REVISED ESTIMATION OF STANDARD ALLOWED MINUTE (SAM) IN INCLUDE/EXCLUDE NON PRODUCTIVITY (NP) ACTIVITIES:

SAMPLE-1
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2166
0.2093
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2002
0.1720
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.0810
0.0780
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0680
0.0650
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0650
0.0520
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2175
0.2002
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1070
0.0810
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2530
0.2356
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0810
0.0780
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1265
0.1092
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1438
0.1274
2
O/L

TOTAL
2.3596
2.2074
15

Table-5.1 Revised Data collection sample-1

SAMPLE-2
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2466
0.2393
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2102
0.1920
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.0810
0.0780
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0780
0.0750
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0760
0.0620
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2175
0.2002
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1170
0.1000
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2530
0.2456
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0810
0.0780
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1265
0.1192
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1608
0.1574
2
O/L

TOTAL
2.4476
2.3467
15

Table-5.1.1 Revised Data collection sample-2

SAMPLE-3
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2266
0.2193
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2102
0.2020
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.0910
0.0880
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0780
0.0750
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0650
0.0620
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2275
0.2102
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1170
0.0910
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2630
0.2556
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0910
0.0880
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1365
0.1192
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1638
0.1474
2
O/L

TOTAL
2.4696
2.3577
15

Table-5.1.2 Revised Data collection sample-3

SAMPLE-4
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2466
0.2493
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2002
0.1920
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.1010
0.0980
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0980
0.0950
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0750
0.0720
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2175
0.2102
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1570
0.1410
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2830
0.2756
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0910
0.0880
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1565
0.1492
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1738
0.1674
2
O/L

TOTAL
2.5996
2.5377
15

Table-5.1.3 Revised Data collection sample-4

SAMPLE-5
S.No
Operation
Sam include NP activities
Sam exclude NP activities
Number of Operator
m/c
1
Front rise attached
0.2366
0.2293
2
O/L
2
Back rise attached
0.2002
0.1920
2
O/L
3
Lace ironing
0.1000
0.0980
1
-
4
Lace attached
0.0880
0.0850
1
F/L
5
Lace finishing
0.0750
0.0680
1
F/L
6
Elastic label attached
0.2175
0.2002
1
F/L
7
Elastic label finished
0.1470
0.1410
1
O/L
8
Inside finishing
0.2730
0.2656
2
O/L
9
Care label attached
0.0910
0.0880
1
F/L
10
Hemming to waist band
0.1565
0.1392
1
F/L
11
Peak on bottom of legging
0.1738
0.1574
2
O/L

TOTAL
2.5586
2.4637
15

Table-5.1.5 Revised Data collection sample-5

5.2 REVISED PRODUCTION ANALYSIS USING OBSERVED SAM VALUES INCLUDING NON-PRODUCTIVITY TIME:
Table- 5.2 revised production analysis using observed SAM values including NP time
Chart -5.2 revised production analysis using observed SAM values including NP time
OBSERVATION:
The above revised observed SAM value include non productivity results say that for average 2.48 SAM and corresponding production per hour for employee working at 60%,70%,80% & 90% efficiency will be 218,253,289,326 respectively.

5.2.1 REVISED PRODUCTION ANALYSIS USING OBSERVED SAM VALUES EXCLUDING NON-PRODUCTIVITY TIME:
Table -5.2.1 revised production analysis using observed SAM values including NP time
Chart -5.2.1 revised production analysis using observed SAM values including NP time
OBSERVATION:
The above revised observed SAM value exclude non productivity results say that for average 2.37 SAM and corresponding production per hour for employee working at 60%,70%,80% & 90% efficiency will be 227,265,303,341 respectively.

5.2.2 REVISED PRODUCTION ANALYSIS VARIABLE CHART:
Table- 5.2.2 revised production analysis
Chart- 5.2.2 revised production analysis
OBSERVATION:
The above revised production analysis variable result say that for an efficiency of 60, 70, 80 & 90 the production variation between include and exclude NP output/hrs will be 9, 12, 14 and 15 respectively.

5.2.3 REVISED FINANCIAL CALCULATION:
In M.S.Kaarthikeyan garments average CM cost for the above experimental style is considered as RS60 per piece
Table- 5.2.3 Revised financial calculation
Chart- 5.2.3 revised financial calculation
OBSERVATION
The above financial results say that production variation in output/hrs 9, 12, 14 & 15 causing loss of about 1684800, 2246400, 2620800 & 280800 per year respectively.

COST INFERENCE:
It has been observed from the cost calculation per saving through time study is as follows
Table -5.2.4 Cost Saving Calculation
5.3 SUGGESTIONS:
Some of the suggestions provided to reduce non-productive activities time are proper production planning, effective application of industrial engineering, well trained operator, proper layout plan, minimum rework, smooth running of sewing machine, proper line balancing, right time oiling to the sewing machineries, ensuring quality production, sufficient numbers of working aids can be provided for smooth working, stickers can be used for identification, correct shade variation, length, width of the fabric should be issued by proper identification, proper allocation of manpower is necessary, books to note down production to be given as one common book is used, proper quality checking, minimum waiting time, inspection time, reduced zigzag movement etc. These recommendations were suggested to the sewing department.

5.4 CONCLUSION:
The suggestive tools developed in this project cover a comprehensive series of aspects in minimizing cost and time in the sewing section of apparel industries by ensuring quality production. It was observed that time was saved and cost related to time was utilized properly (reduced by eliminating non productive activities). The study clearly indicates that by eliminating non productive activities in the sewing section time as well as cost are saved which have an important impact on overall factory economy.

Bibliography:
  1. Feld,M.W.,(2000).Lean Manufacturing: Tools, Techniques, and how to use them. Boca Raton, London: The St. Lucie Press
  2. Kumar, S. A. (2008). Production and Operations Management. Daryaganj, Delhi, India: New Age International, p. 217-220.
  3. (viyellatex group)(n.d.). Retrieved december 2012, from viyellatex group: http//www.viyellatexgroup.com
  4. Shahidul, M. I. and Syed Shazali, S. T. Dynamics of manufacturing Productivity: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management Vol. 22 No. 5, 2011, p. 664-678
  5. (Opex Group) (n.d.). Retrieved december 2012, from Opex group: http//www.opexgroup.com
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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