Impacts of Government Policies in Textile Industries in Sudan

Impacts of Government Policies in Textile Industries in Sudan
Authors: Muna TagElsir, 
Isam Eldin Eldisougy, 
Dr. Ahmed Alhassan

Elements of the textile industry include manufacturing techniques, agriculture, expert labor, commercial factors and government policies for developing this kind of industry. It’s a transformative industry built on the principle of complementarity between the ministries of agriculture and industry. Sudan, one of the countries that witnessed the collapse of textile in late 90s of last century industry after great beginning at 50s as a direct result of the government policies to reduce the agricultural area of cotton seed in central Sudan and replace it by the cultivation of wheat, which minimized the total quantity of cotton seed and limit the varieties one of the important economic factors, also different irrigation between scheme of wheat and cotton contributed in produce product with low quality specifications which that do not allow to produce the variety products later in the manufacturing process, furthermore the lack of any rehabilitation to old equipment in existing textile plants, which other factor include banning of import of raw materials by government policies and soliciting of international investment.

Many estimated projects done by experts in this sector, approve and shown it’s an excellent investment sector which make a huge profit and employ a huge number of workers and graduate engineers. The government has brought some solutions after failing to reach agreements with farmers and landowners and Cotton company including growing new type of cotton seed (Almohawar), which the scientific research proved that is causing quality problem at the stage of spinning may not allow to complete productivity stages, also no allowed to use its oil or the oil cake, thus losing commercial value in terms of material balance cost. Exempt farmers from debts also did not act as an incentive or motivated reason to cooperate with the government policy. The problem of energy not available on a permanent basis or a significant program still challenge for this industry.

Keywords: Raw materials availability, Energy consumption and savings, Technical feasibility, Political facilities, Industrial chemistry schools 

1. Introduction:
Textile industry is a basic transformative industry by any third world country, which occupies very important place in the international trade. Consumption of the textile fabric of the world will increase with the growth of population, at 1999 there was 6 billion people consumed 50 – 60 million tons fabric [4]. It is forecasted that by 2050 there will be around 11 to 13 billion people and will consume 100 – 120 million tons fabric per year [4]. It also show that the future textile market will have a prosperous prospect.

Human life depend on food and clothes on daily basis, and this has been reflected on all industries and manufacturing materials including the textile industries. In Sudan the successful of this kind of industry based on cotton seed on the first place beside the other chemicals materials (polyester staple, the auxiliary materials such as sizing materials, dyestuff and bleaching chemical materials) to run textile factories, which started on 1950 – 1960 based on very strong project (Algazira project) to cover the local consumption and for export beside many other project establish mainly for textile industries purposes with total design capacities 480 million meters per year [5], when this manufacturing industry made partnerships with the rich agricultural country and have a good location (which represent a link between number of neighboring countries and consumers) like Sudan, a highly rate of profit ( sometimes exceeds 50%) will be accomplished Market demand of Sudan’s textile products (famous product types are pure cotton, polyester -mixed cotton (P 65/C 35) and /or (P 35 / C 65) show there is a broad market demand for textile products in Sudan and its surrounding countries.

Unfortunately, Sudan now imports more than 90 % of its needs of fabric and clothe from outside countries such as China, India, Pakistan and Egypt. This is a direct result of shorting in the raw materials and stoppage of big number of textile factories, furthermore the industrial chemistry schools graduate textile engineer without job opportunities in their filed in Sudan.

This review article explains more about these problems and discusses one of the management aspect (policy) to run or stop textile factories in Sudan.

2. Materials and research review:

2.1 Cottonseed charts
These charts shown below review the totally used materials from this strategic crop, every part has a benefit side and use it to make a business profits

As can be seen this cotton seed has a wide range of applications in industrial sector.

2.2 Textile Industry Flow diagram [6]
Textile manufacturing or production is a very complex process. The range of textile manufacturing is so long. It starts from fiber to finished products. Here is the mostly proper flow chart which explain briefly the processing units of textile industries.

2.3 Capacities of Sudan textile industry

2.3.1 Status and development of Sudan’s textile and costume industry
Generally speaking, Sudan textile clothing industry at the present time has obsolete equipment, lagging technology that produces single variety of products, in addition to ineffective management and poor ability of employees, as a result, the economic benefit of the whole industry is poor, especially from the year 2000 since Sudan allowed its clothing market to importation of textile products to the outside world, almost all the enterprises showed a state of incapability in competition, due to this open import policy by the government the important reason is all the existing textile enterprises stopped production

The following table shows the textile manufacturing Status as of the year 2016 [7]:
Table 3, 1 Textile manufacturing Status in Sudan
It’s very important to note that:
  • The actual quantities around 15.000 ton per year ( an approximately figure)
  • The phrase (working factories) not necessary means textile factory contain all processing units sometimes means just one unit was running
  • The completely stopped factories 45.9% can increase to 73% if the temporary stopped factories continue their status.
3. Points of discussion
Points of discussion of this paper focus on three main affected points:

3.1 Availability of Raw Materials in Sudan
3.1.1 Reduction of the agriculture areas for cottonseed which is replaced by wheat crop

Clearly this reduction has resulted in the cotton seed quantity which reduce the to more than half %; in addition there is no existence of alternatives raw materials imported to Sudan – according to the industry ministry decision –

3.1.2 Wrong way of irrigation led to harvest cotton seed crop with very bad quality which didn’t match with the existing textile machines

The problem of irrigation is that is the wheat crop that cultivated beside cotton seed need different conditions of irrigation (temperature, moisture...) resulting in the emergence of (Alassala) disease which lower the quality of cotton and led to problems in the hardware used into production equipment especially spinning machines. Also no caring about the crop classification during harvest process which account as a one of the quality problems

3.1.3 Government can’t find compromise ways with farmers to allow the true investment methods.

The policy of Cotton Company and farmers/ landowners to cooperate and manage this kind of input with Sudan government not clear, and the outcome is not satisfactory to the all parties which affect into agricultural production of cotton.

3.2 Energy consumption and cost in textile industries

3.2.1 Energy Problem
Energy is used in water supply and drainage, air conditioner and de-dusting, lightening, chilling, air compressor and boiler, electrics. Energy consumption approximately; Water demand 75 m3 per hr., total power consumption 20 million kw, environment production, a sewage treatment station (waste water 100 m3 per day), to produce one million meter fabric [6], this highly demand and consumption of power need stable provision of electricity ability without un-programmed cutoff power

3.2.2 Energy Savings:
To save energy we need to reduce consumption, improve utilization ratio of energy to obtain better economic benefits, when new type of high speed technological equipment for example: selected some of the are electromechanical integrative equipment of international advanced level with higher running efficiency, which under scientific management, adjustment, matching and utilization, characteristic of high efficiency and energy savings for the equipment will shows sufficiently, for example de- dusting system in workshop adopts new type de- dusting equipment with small wind resistance, high efficiency and low power consumption. Energy saving is notable that 24% of electrical energy can be saved. Also to save electrical energy consumption, light source with low capacitance and high luminous flux and green illuminating lamps will be selected 

3.2.3 Energy Management
In Sudan a word factory does not necessarily mean the whole plant that contains all units of textile production; may it be a unit for spinning and weaving, beside all factories located in Sudan currently as either scrap or their owners change the original purpose, so when start discussing the subject of energy management which require to consider the old running technology lead to problem of high energy consumption rates between 65% consuming by cooling and lighting and 25% by operating machines, especially since most of them are not working under self- power generation system (turbine), also the insufficient equipment which suffering when try to increase speeds to improve productivity. Under these circumstances it is so difficult to have some energy management policies to make development

3.3 Government aid (funding) to Textile Industry

3.3.1Cooperate between ministry of Agriculture and ministry of Industry
Leading integrative process between the Agricultural and industrial ministries and with the consumer for developing and encouraging the local industry. Some of the positives of the current period is the new experiment to cultivate new type of cotton seed (Almohawar) as an alternative, but unfortunately the results of this miscommunication between the two ministries is lead to produce cotton seed not suitable for spinning stage and has a low quality specifications, beside the loss of seeds oil and oil cake commercially.

3.3.2 Rehabilatation and Job Opportunities
In the year 1970 old factories started production up to 480 million meters per year by 12 meters per capita of different types of fabrics and increase productivity for export with thousands of workers and engineers, now the opposite is happening: majority of stoppage, no job opportunities and all budgets for rehabilitation went to other projects.

3.3.3 International Investment
Chinese and Turkish mostly seeking to invest in this sector by offering Ministries of Industry and Finance new textile projects either construction or rehabilitation projects, but they ignored these investors, while the government focused on different other sectors rather than textile industry, also its very important to mention the government policies. Regarding customs and tax policies of the inputs, fees for inputs and DEVELOPMENT tax are complicating and making it difficult to build new textile factories.

4. Recommendations
The following table represents the major problems and their recommendation for surviving the problem in a summary way:

- Cultivation area of wheat
-Use the cultivation lands for wheat in northern Sudan
- Outdated technology and a lack of long-term funding
-Updated technologies and rehabilitation of existing plants and expanding the total capacities to provide long-term capital funding
-Lack of production inputs seasonally, leading to lack of availability of raw materials just on time
- Seasonal stoppages increase waste in the production capacities
-Insecure situation of textile. s employee in times of stopping
-No constant income
-Re-establish the cooperation between the agricultural sector and the industrial sector
-Competition from imported goods
-Reduce the cost of production by processes optimization
- Cancel tax and customs fees also for the individual Sudanese states
-Improve the product quality and add new and different production lines for new products
-Install Textiles and ready-made clothing fairs (Made in Sudan)
-Higher energy costs and unorganized electricity supply
-Give priority to grant electricity supply to the industrial sector during power cutout
-The lack of a clear policy to provide the required raw material for production
-Develop the Facilitation of policy procedures

5. Conclusions 
Serious great changes into polices are the basic to reach the textile industry target following goals and achieve the self-sufficiency 100% of fabric and readymade and for export, provide jobs opportunities for thousands worker, infrastructure rehabilitation for basic units of textile factories (fresh water supply, sewage water and electricity supply), starting and caring for assistance services (health environment, safety and security and medical services). Reducing the prices of energy materials (furnace, gasoline and electricity)

Open the door for investment and import new modern machines Above all provide inputs all year and succeed to reduce the waste.

  1. Muna Tag Elsir M.Khair, PhD researcher in chemical engineering
  2. Isam Eldin Eldisougy, Msc Mechanical Engineering Design UK 1975, General Manager at: Sudan Textile Industry, Nile Power Battery Factory (Eveready), Saria Industries, Pasgianos Food & Beverage Company, Consultant & Board of Director at: Nile Corporation Textile (DAEWOO), Haggar Holding Company, Ministry of Industry since 1999 up to now .
  3. Ahmed Elzain Elhassan, Ph.D in Chemical Engineering Texas A&M University 1991, Associate Professor, Chemical Engineering Department U of S&T 2012-present
  4. Economic and technical feasibility study report, Hebei Textile architectural Design Institute, 2006
  5. The production capacities of the textile industries in Sudan (designed, available, actual), ministry of industry survey study, 2016
  7. Industry is the future of Sudan, ministry of industry published magazine, 2016 


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