Caustic Washing Process with Limitation

Caustic Washing Process with Limitation
Mayedul Islam
Merchandiser at Fashion Xpress Buying House.
Badda, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Caustic wash
Garment washing is a new trend in textile and apparel sector. There are various types garment washing. Among them Caustic Wash is one of the popular and mostly used process of Garment Washing. Caustic wash is a treating a product with a solution of caustic soda to remove impurities. Caustic wash generally doing on Reactive dye, Sulpher dye, Direct dyed or printed Garments. 

Garment washed snap shirt
Caustic wash is required for the following reasons:
  • To fading/old looking affect on Garment and seam abrasion affection seam area.
  • To remove the size materials, starch from the garments.
  • Dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities etc. are removed that may come from during process i.e. cutting, stitching and the back process.
  • To increase the color fastness & rubbing fastness.
  • For soft feeling to wear the garments.
  • To increase the hairiness on garments this increases its old look appearance.
  • To achieve the buyer reference sample
Discoloration produced is usually more apparent depending:-
  1. On strength of the bleach liquor
  2. On bleach liquor quantity
  3. On temperature and
  4. On treatment time.
Caustic washing process:
The washing procedure follows the bellow mentioned steps.

First Step:
Supposed a lot size 80kg garments.
  • Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 640 liter
  • Machine Running.
  • Add Caustic soda (NAOH) at 1.60 gm / liter ....... 1024 gm.
  • Add Detergent.............. at 0.8 gm / liter ......... 432 gm.
  • Temperature........... 50°c to 60°c.
  • Time (Depend upon the shade) ....... 20 to 60 min.
  • Drop the liquor.
  • Wash cold water for 3 min.
Second Step: Neutral wash
  • Add water at L: R = 1: 5 ......... 400 liter.
  • Add Acetic Acid at 1 gm / liter ............. 400 gm.
  • Time................................... 5 min.
  • Here acetic acid is used to neutralize the garments from alkaline medium
Third Step:
  • Add water at L: R = 1: 6.............. 480 liter
  • Machine Running.
  • Add Acetic Acid at 0.5 gm / liter ............ 240 gm.
  • Add Flax softener at 0.6 gm / liter........... 288 gm.
  • If more soft use silicon at 0.6 gm / liter ... 288 gm.
  • Time................................ 10 to 20 min.
  • Drop the liquor.
  • Unload the garments on trolley
Fourth Step: Hydro- extractor machine.
Hydro-extraction the garments to remove excess water from the Garments. Time required about 2 - 4 minutes.

Fifth Step: Steam dryer/Gas dryer
  • Load on steam dryer - 50 kg
  • Running the machine
  • Temperature - 60°c - 70°c
  • Time - 40 - 50 min for dry.
  • Time - 10 - 15 min for cold dry.
  • Load on gas dryer - 50 kg,
  • Running the machine
  • Temperature: - 70°c - 85°c for dry.
  • Time: - 30 - 35 min for dry.
  • Time: - 10 - 15 min for cold dry.
Sixth Step:
After drying garments go to quality section and check the garment, good quality garment will be delivery and Deep shade again rewash, other quality Garment rectify then delivery.

Limitations of Caustic wash
  1. Process is difficult to control.
  2. Problem of yellowing.
  3. Required antichlor treatment Causes corrosion to stainless steel.
  4. Harmful to human health.
  5. Source of environmental pollution. 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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