Performance Analysis of Denim Garments by Bleach Wash (Part-4)

Performance Analysis of Denim Garments by Bleach Wash (Part-4)
Authors: Md. Anwarul Haque1
Ariful Hassan
Shantonu Paul Shuvra
Md. ShagorHossain

Textile Engineering College, Begumgonj, Noakhali.
Email: haquebd2014@gmail.com1, arifulhassan034@gmail.com2

Previous Part

Description of Washing machine, Dryer, Hydro-extractor:

A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or laundry) is a machine designed to wash laundry, such as clothing, towels and sheets. The term is mostly applied only to machines that use water as the primary cleaning solution, as opposed to dry cleaning (which uses alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by specialist businesses) or even ultrasonic cleaners. The definition of washing is "To cleanse, using water or other liquid, usually with soap, detergent, or bleach, by immersing, dipping, rubbing, or scrubbing". The term machine "A device consisting of fixed and moving parts that modifies mechanical energy and transmits it in a more useful form".

Laundering by hand involves beating and scrubbing dirty cloth. It is hard work even with manufactured aids like washboards and soap to help.

Clothes washer technology developed as a way to reduce the drudgery of this scrubbing and rubbing process by providing an open basin or sealed container with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing. The earliest machines were hand-operated. As electricity was not commonly available until at least 1930, some early machines were operated by a low-speed single-cylinder hit and miss gasoline engine. By the mid-1850s steam-driven commercial laundry machinery was on sale in the USA and Great Britain Technological advances in machinery for commercial and institutional laundries proceeded faster than domestic washer design for several decades, especially in the UK. In the US there was more emphasis on developing machines for washing at home, as well as machines for the commercial laundry services which were widely used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Because water often had to be carried, heated on a fire for washing, then poured into the tub, the warm soapy water was precious and would be reused over and over, first to wash the least soiled clothing, then to wash progressively dirtier laundry. While the earliest machines were constructed from wood, later machines made of metal permitted a fire to burn below the washtub, to keep the water warm throughout the day's washing.

Removal of soap and water from the clothing after washing was originally a separate process. After rinsing, the soaking wet clothing would be formed into a roll and twisted by hand to extract water. To help reduce this labor, the wringer was developed, which uses two rollers under spring tension to squeeze water out of clothing and household linen. Each item would be fed through the wringer separately. The first wringers were hand-operated, but were eventually included as a powered attachment above the washer tub. The wringer would be swung over the wash tub so that extracted wash water would fall back into the tub to be reused for the next wash load.

The modern process of water removal by spinning did not come into use until electric motors were developed. Spinning requires a constant high-speed power source, and was originally done in a separate device known as an extractor. A load of washed clothing would be transferred from the wash tub to the extractor basket, and the water spun out. These early extractors were often dangerous to use since unevenly distributed loads would cause the machine to shake violently. Many efforts have been made to counteract the shaking of unstable loads, first by mounting the spinning basket on a free-floating shock-absorbing frame to absorb minor imbalances, and a bump switch to detect severe movement and stop the machine so that the load can be manually redistributed. Many modern machines are equipped with a sealed ring of liquid that works to counteract any imbalances.

What is now referred to as an automatic washer was at one time referred to as a washer/extractor, which combines the features of these two devices into a single machine, plus the ability to fill and drain water by itself. It is possible to take this a step further, to also merge the automatic washing machine and clothes dryer into a single device, but this is generally uncommon because the drying process tends to use much more energy than using two separate devices; a combined washer/dryer not only must dry the clothing, but also need to dry out the wash chamber itself.

Description of Dryer
The Vincent Vacuo-Dehydrator removes moisture from a continuous flow of material. It is a direct fired dehydration system available in sizes ranging in capacity from 1,000 to 20,000 pounds per hour of water evaporation.

The Vincent Dehydrator is a three pass rotating drum machine with special lifting paddles on the inner and outer surface of each pass. The curtain formed by the material falling from these paddles as the drum rotates assures that all material being fed to the unit receives maximum exposure to the warm gas stream. The drum design and gradually reducing temperatures serve to form an operational balance between declining gas flow energy and declining material moisture content, thereby reducing the chances of burning the product or having it stick to the walls.

Upon leaving the Dehydrator, the material is separated from the air stream in a uniquely designed "low intake" Expansion Chamber. The dried material is drawn through this combination separation and drying chamber under vacuum stream conditions while being cascaded through the hot air stream.

A conventional "high inlet" Cyclone Separator can also be employed. This second devise can be installed in series with the Expansion Chamber when a natural grading of material size is desired.

The Vincent Dehydrator drum is available either in the rotating or stationary outer shell design. The stationary outer design allows the capability of re-cycling partially dried material. Many soupy or sticky materials, which are difficult to dry in most dehydrators, are effectively handled in the Vincent Dehydrator.

When specified with this recycling capability, the Dehydrator allows partially dried material to be mixed with incoming wet material, absorbing excess moisture. In this manner the moisture becomes distributed through a greater number of particles, allowing the mixture to dry easily and quickly. This mode of operation does not reduce the capacity of the Dehydrator.

Operation with the recycling feature is automatic and continuous, yielding high product quality with a minimum of operator attention. Extraction gates allow easy adjustment to compensate for changes in product consistency.

The Dehydrator is fed by a variable speed air lock screw conveyor. This can be easily adjusted through a wide range of speeds to match variations in required evaporation rates.

The Vincent Dehydrator drum is completely assembled and aligned for ease of installation. All parts subject to thermal expansion are provided with expansion joints, resulting in long trouble free operation. The unit is mounted on a rigid frame, which minimizes the cost of the concrete foundations and which keeps the machine in better alignment. The standard drive arrangement for the Vincent Dehydrator is a heavy duty gear reducer, mounted on a jack shaft with roller bearing pillow blocks.

All models are of fabricated design and are available in carbon steel, partial stainless and all stainless construction. The drum assembly turns on machined steel tires at either end which are supported by roller bearing turn ions .

Material enters the Vincent Dehydrator drum at the furnace end through the throat, and removal of water begins immediately. The evaporation of water maintains the product temperature at the dew point condition where the highest efficiency of evaporation occurs.

A temperature monitor at the inlet to the third pass of the drum senses any variation in gas temperature. This correlates to the moisture in the product and automatically adjusts the fuel supply to the furnace. This controls the moisture content of the dried product. Moisture content of plus or minus 1/2% on overall product dryness at pre- determined levels can be attained.

Material is drawn through the concentric drums by the exhaust fan vacuum. As the material dries the density decreases so that it is drawn further through the Dehydrator until only particles of the required moisture content pass out of the drum. The possibility of damage to the product by high temperatures is avoided in the process.

The Expansion Chamber is fitted to the output end of the Vincent Dehydrator. It is a large tank in which the dried material is separated out of the hot air stream. Material collected in the chamber is then screw fed out of the base through an air lock.
'000 BTU/HR
5'3" x 34'
10 hp
7'6" x 48'
20 hp
8'6" x 60'
37 hp
9'6" x 66'
50 hp
10'3" x 70'
63 hp
11'6" x 76'
84 hp
13'6" x 88'
125 hp

Hydro Extractor
Hydro extractor or centrifugal extractor use centrifuge technology for manufacturing laundering which is used in Textile Company. Hydro extracting m/c is mainly centrifuges for generating hydropower. The wet substantial is placed in the hydro extracting m/c or centrifugal extracting m/c which has a barrier of metal generally steel. The internal drum of centrifugal extracting m/c switches at high speed thus throwing out the water contained in it. The use of this extractor considerably decreases the energy required to dry any material. It is special types of washing machine. Through our technique apartment hardwork, exploit new the leading level, and the national patent. This extractor is used after dyeing machine and before tumble dryer machine.
Fig: Hydro extractor
Feature of Hydro Extractor:
According the brake way it can be stored: new style liquid pressure start series and whole converter controlling series.

Specifications of Centrifugal Extractor:
Specifications Name
Specifications Value
Product Category
Hydro Extractor
Machine Category
Centrifugal Extractor Laundry Machine
Product Name
Washing hydro extractor for industrial laundering
Product Model
According to Manufacturer
Product Class
Scottish hydro
Name of Manufacturer
Agent in Bangladesh
Production Capacity
500 Set/Sets per Month
Rated capacity
100 Kg
Drum speed
640 rpm
Drum size
Motor power
Motor Speed
Motor Frequency(HZ)
Hydro power of hydro extracting machine have 3 legs suspended instruction
can avoid shock caused by unbalanced loaded
  • Stainless steel inner roller
  • Anti-erosion, durable using
  • 3-feet suspending holding frame
  • Good for preventing vibration,
  • Safety and reliable
  • Simple operation,
  • Easy maintenance
  • Economic
Activities of Centrifuge Extractor for Industrial Laundering
Centrifugal extractor machine is used for removing extra water from fabric by centrifugal method. Normally 75% water is passed away by this technique of hydropower. 

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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