Natural Dyeing of Cotton Fabric Using Terminalia Chebula and Turmeric Part-2

NATURAL DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC USING TERMINALIA CHEBULA (KADUKKAI) AND TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) PART-2
Rajan.S1
Textile Chemistry, SSM College of Engineering,
Komarapalayam, Namakkal, India.
srajusri321@gmail.com1
Gopinath.M2
Textile Chemistry, SSM College of Engineering,
Komarapalayam, Namakkal, India.
gopi.tc007@gmail.com2





NATURAL DYE - AN OVERVIEW
Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens.

PURPOSE OF CHOOSING TERMINALIA CHEBULA (KADUKKAI) and TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA):
  1. It protects the skin against UV radiations from the sun.
  2. It can be used to make the child wears.
  3. It is a strong antibacterial, non- toxic, non-allergic and antifungal element that protects the human body.
  4. Balancing of internal body hormones hence prevents critical conditions such as diabetes.
  5. The pollution load is very much less and Waste of the dyes can be used as the manure or fertilizer.
  6. To promote the ancient and traditional Natural Dyeing Technology.
IMPORTANT USES OF NATURAL DYES
Nature is full of fascinating colours without which life would have been dull and monotonous. Until the 19th century natural dyes were the main colorants for textiles. Artificial dyes were then introduced. The latter are easier to apply than the natural dyes. Besides a wide range of available colours, higher reproducibility and improved quality of dyeing could be achieved at lower specific cost. Natural dyes cost have to be lowered considerably and the quality level of the dyeing needs substantial improvement. According to Pan et al (2003) the concept for production of natural dyes with lowered specific cost involves use of cheap by- products from other agricultural activities, like bark from the timber industry or leaves from abundantly available plants as deodar, jackfruit and eucalyptus. Synthetic dyes are non-biodegradable. There is a quest of replacing these with natural dyes in textile coloration addressing issues to do with environmental awareness, ecology, pollution control and sustainability. Natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. Considerable research has been done around the world to discover new sources of natural colouring agents and especially those with lower costs in order to make these textile products as popular as possible. Most of the natural dyed textiles are imported from Third World Countries and India is still a major producer of natural dyes.
Natural dyeing
Natural dyeing
CATEGORIES OF NATURAL DYES

Substantive dyes:
  • Whereby no mordant (dye fixes) are required to set the colors.
Vat dyes:
  • Whereby fixing the colors involve the oxidization process.
Mordant dyes:
  • Whereby the dyes require the use of an additive, usually some form of mineral, to set the colors.
WHY GO FOR NATURAL DYE?
Ever looked at a vast landscape and go, "Wow, I could just look at this forever?" Sure, we are all captivated by the richness of the colours of Mother Nature. A leaf will never have the same shade of green throughout its life. Yet, the colours are all equally eye pleasing.

So why should you buy naturally dyed products? 3 reasons:
  • Even if they fade, the colours are still eye pleasing and are not garish like their synthetic counterparts.
  • They have therapeutic properties because they are made from products in nature.
  • Less chance to develop skin conditions such as rashes and eczema especially for babies.
TYPES OF DYE SOURCES
In the world of natural fabric dyeing, there are three sources where the artist may get their pigment bases from:
  • Plants – such as Marigold which produces a rich yellow.
  • Animal/Insect – such as Cochineal, an insect that lives on cacti that produces a deep blood red due to the carminic acid found in them.
  • Minerals, colored clay or earth oxide – such as ochre.
DEFINITION OF NATURAL DYES
The word ‘natural dye’ covers all the dyes derived from the natural sources like plants, animal and minerals. Natural dyes are mostly non-substantive and must be applied on textiles by the help of mordant, usually a metallic salt, having an affinity for both the colouring matter and the fibre. Transition metal ions usually have strong coordinating power and/or capable of forming week to medium attraction/interaction forces and thus can act as bridging material to create substantively of natural dyes/colorants when a textile material being impregnated with such metallic salt (i.e. mordant) is subjected to dyeing with different natural dyes. Usually having some mordant able groups facilitating fixation of such dye/colorant. These metallic mordents after combining with dye in the fibre, it forms an insoluble precipitate or lake and thus both the dye and mordant get fixed to become wash fast to a reasonable level. 

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