Important Factors which Influencing Knitted Fabric Quality

Important Factors which Influencing Knitted Fabric Quality
Muhammad Ibrahim Khalilullah
Department of Textile Engineering
Daffodil International University

Knitted fabric:
There are three types of fabric i.e. woven fabric, knitted fabric and nonwoven fabric. Knitted fabric is produced by knitting process. There are two types of knitted fabrics: weft-knitted and warp-knitted. Fashion designers love knit fabric for its comfort, texture, wrinkle resistance, and elasticity. It is easy to sew with the right machine and stitching technique.
Knitted fabric
Dimensional properties of knitted fabric or factors influencing knitted fabric quality:
The factors on which the quality of knitted fabric depends on:
  1. Courses per cm
  2. Wales per cm
  3. Stitch density per cm²
  4. Shape factor (Wale spacing : Course spacing)
  5. Stitch density
  6. Tightness factor K = √(tex/l)
  7. Area density
  8. Kc (Constant) = Courses per cm × Stitch length in mm
  9. Kw (Constant) = Wales per cm × Stitch length in mm
  10. Ks (Constant) = Loops per area × Stitch length squared in mm²
  11. Loop shape factor= Kc × Kw
Factors influencing knitted fabric quality:
Fabric quality (knitted fabric) depends on the following factors as stated below:

(a) Yarn variables:
The yarn variables which influence knitted fabric quality are:
  1. Yarn strength
  2. Yarn count
  3. Yarn type
  4. Yarn evenness
  5. Yarn twist
  6. Yarn extensibility
  7. Yarn rigidness
  8. Yarn finishing treatment.
(b) Machine variables:
The machine variables which affect knitted fabric quality are:
  1. Machine gauge
  2. Machine speed
  3. Needle gaiting
  4. Needle Timing
  5. Cam design or cam arrangement
  6. Needle arrangement
  7. Knitting elements
  8. Take down arrangement
(c) Knitting variables:
The knitting variables are:
  1. Input tension
  2. Positive feed
(d) Fabric variables:
The fabric variables are:
  1. Fabric design
  2. Fabric structure
  3. Fabric end use.
Dependence of fabric properties on fibre and yarn characteristics:
  1. Fiber fineness
  2. Staple length
  3. Cross sectional shape
  4. Specific gravity
  5. Flexural rigidity
  6. Torsional rigidity
  7. Load-extension relationship
  8. Strength
  9. Elastic recovery
  10. Resistance to abrasion
  11. Friction
State of knitted fabric:
Some states of knitted fabrics are mentioned below:

1. Off machine state:
This is the state of knitted fabric in which it is obtained just after production from knitting machine.

2. Dry relaxed state:
The state of knitted fabric which is obtained after keeping it at 27°c ± 2°c temperature for 24-72 hours.

3. Fully relaxed state:
The state of knitted fabric which is obtained after washing it with detergent and then drying and keeping in standard atmosphere.

4. Finished state:
The state of knitted fabric which is obtained after dyeing and finishing. 

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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