Whitening Agent: Properties, Function, Mechanism and Usages (Part-9)

Whitening Agent: Properties, Function, Mechanism and Usages (Part-9)
Authors: Md. Mosharaf Hossain
Kiriti Kingkar Mondal
Tawhidul Islam

Dept. of Textile Engineering
Primeasia University, Dhaka

Previous Part

The Impact on Human Health:

(1) Had no stimulation to the skin
After years of animal and human experiments show that: even the direct skin contact of fluorescent whitening agent CBS pure product, no irritation to the skin, does not cause skin allergies.

Shen Yongjia Professor prepared "fluorescent whitening agents," a book that: fluorescent whitening agent will not be absorbed by the skin. Even if the fluorescent whitening agent CBS in the use of the process may have a small amount of adhesion on the skin, and there is no human skin reaction, and through washing daily activities (e.g., take a shower, wash) can easily be completely washed off, percutaneous absorption not.

Therefore, the skin damage and washing liquid contact will not add CBS.

(2) Had no adverse effect on wound healing
Published in 1994, "the German dermatology" magazine "of fluorescent whitening agent toxicological properties" in an article pointed out that, even if is in direct contact with the wound with textile material containing fluorescent whitening agent, nor on wound healing have adverse effects on human skin, and is not caused by pathological changes.

(3) Metabolism: 
Fluorescent whitening agent CBS is a water soluble, soon completely excreted by normal metabolism.

Germany Georg Thieme Publishing House of the "environmental quality and safety" supplementary fourth volume "of fluorescent whitening agent" (`Environmental Quality and Safety` Supplement Volume IV `Fluorescent Whitening Agents`) pointed out in one book, by study of metabolism in mice, in the high-dose fed detergent with fluorescent whitening agent CBS, the vast majority of brightening agent can quickly through the intestinal tract discharge, are not absorbed in the intestine. The blood, liver, kidney, brain, muscle and fat were not fluorescent brightener residue, which will not cause accumulation. So in daily life, even a small amount of fluorescent whitening agent CBS enters the human body, will be through the normal metabolism excreted very quickly.

(4) Fluorescent whitening agent CBS had no teratogenic, carcinogenic free:
The acute toxicity and the research on various animal two-year chronic toxicity in mice experimental study demonstrated that: CBS belongs to the non-toxic substances, carcinogenic, teratogenic, no no no mutagenicity.

The Detergent Association (A.I.S.E.) test report "risk assessment of effects of domestic detergent ingredients to human body and environment of fluorescent whitening agent FWA-5" of fluorescent whitening agent CBS (also called FWA-5) toxicological research results show that: the fluorescent brightener CBS without light carcinogenic reaction.

German Environment Ministry in 1983 solemnly declare, fluorescent brightener CBS has no sensitization and teratogenicity.

The Impact on the Environment

(1) CBS degradation of high
CBS used in detergent is not high, after rinsing dilution, sewage by a general treatment, CBS can be reduced by more than 95-, and finally into the environment in small quantities. Even if a few into surface water (such as river), is also very rapid light degradation, photo degradation products is also very easy to two degradation, namely microbial eaten decompose into carbon dioxide, has no influence on the environment material.

(2) Had no effect on the food chain
CBS is a water soluble fluorescent whitening agent, the fish after ingestion, not stranded in biological tissues and organs. Laboratory studies have shown that fish, even in high concentration CBS under the conditions of life after a period of time, out of this environment for two days, CBS accumulation in fish body will not.

The results showed the ecology research based on long, CBS has no harm to the environment.

August 2, 2011 afternoon, China Cleaning Products Industry Association held a "detergent with fluorescent whitening agent security" experts will meet the media in Beijing China hall of science and technology. The conference invited experts are engaged in toxicology, medicine, fluorescent whitening agent, washing supplies, textile dyes, research in the domestic well-known professor and researcher. Experts from the professional point of view, the fluorescent whitening agent of the authority of interpretation, and draw the same conclusion: safe detergent fluorescent whitening agents on human, friendly to the environment, is the auxiliary function can not replace of cleaning products.

Fluorescent whitening agent research experts, East China University of Science and Technology doctoral tutor Professor Shen Yongjia said, fluorescent whitening agent is a kind of optical conditioner. The principle of its role is the invisible ultraviolet light into blue light visible to the naked eye, and Huang Guangxiang stack, fabric itself to emit white light, soft, pleasing whitening effect, has been widely used in many fields of textile, papermaking, detergents, plastics etc.. Professor Shen said, "fluorescent whitening agent in clothes coated with a layer of white stuff to cover the stains" is ridiculous, because the fluorescent whitening agent and water, are colorless and transparent, cannot cover the stains. We add it to the washing liquid is because it has any product can not replace color conditioning.

Toxicologists, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology of occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Professor Wu Zhigang stressed, detergent for acute toxicity grade and salt fluorescent whitening agent, no teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic no, no stimulation to the skin, will not cause skin allergies, not absorbed through skin, no adverse effects on wound healing. Even if eating, do not accumulate in the body, soon completely excreted by normal metabolism. In addition, he also mentioned the detergent with fluorescent whitening agent of environmental safety without harm, easy degradation, not to accumulate in organisms. Laundry detergent with fluorescent whitening agent in the world also have been in use for 40 years, its security has been widely recognized by many scientists, government departments and authorities.

At first conclusion we can say that most of the typical commercial detergents of domestic use appear to contain a considerable amount of optical brighteners. The effect of optical brighteners on colored textiles appears to be different depending on color, that is to say, on the corresponding region of the spectrum. It seems to be more visible on the violet-blue colors and almost insignificant on orange and red. However, even in these colors a slight effect can be observed in case of lower fastness. The lighter the color is more intense the optical brightener’s effect can be, even in colors with a good fastness.

Dark colors presenting lower fastness to washing showed only a small difference on hue.

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  10. Chemical technology in the pretreatment processes of textile by s.r. karmakar. 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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