Viva Questions on Fabric Manufacturing Technology

Viva Questions on Fabric Manufacturing Technology
Raju Tex
Knitting Technologist,
B.J.Group, Mawna, Gazipur
Chittagong Textile Engineering College

In fabric manufacturing technology, three types of fabrics are produced. They are woven, knitted and nonwoven. It is a complex and ancient process for making cloth. In this article various types of viva questions and answers of fabric manufacturing technology are given. Those will be helpful for students, teachers and job seekers.
Fabric Manufacturing Technology
Terms of Fabric Manufacturing Technology:

1. What is fabric?
Ans: Interlacement of two or more thread of yarn.

2. Categories of woven fabric structure.
Ans: Simple structure, Complex structure.

3. What is construction of fabric?
Ans: Warp count X Weft count/EPI X PPI X Fabric width.

4. What is texture?
Ans: Quality of fabric such as handle properties, shining properties, draping properties.

5. Texture depend on which mater?
Ans: Yarn count, EPI, PPI, Yarn twist, Interlacement etc.

6. What is contact field?
Ans: Contact points between warp & weft yarn at right angle. (RNwa*RNwe)

7. What is interlacing field?
Ans: The points where a yarn of one system of threads changes its position in relation to other system.

8. What is free field?
Ans: The zone where the warp & weft yarn do not touch & change fabric side.

9. What is open field?
Ans: Zone where warp nor weft thread occurs.

10 . What is interlacing ratio?
Ans: Ratio between actual no of interlacing & maximum no of interlacing.

11. What is Degree of interlacing?
Ans: When interlacing ratio is expressed as percentage.

12. What is repeat number?
Ans: No of warp & weft yarns in a fabric.

13. What is drafting?
Ans: Drawing process of warp yarn through heald eye according to the plan or design.

14. What is lifting plan?
Ans: Selection of healds to be lifted or lowered.

15. What is denting plan?
Ans: Process of inserting warp yarn through reed.

16. What is skip Draft?
Ans: To make fabric with high density of warp yarn.

17. What is pointed draft?
Ans: Used to produce fabric with symmetrical design.

18. How divided draft is produce?
Ans: By dividing the heald shafts into two or more groups.

19. Why grouped draft is needed?
Ans: To producing check & strip fabric.

20. Finer yarn used as where?
Ans: As warp.

21. Coarser yarn used as where?
Ans: As weft.

22. What is twill weave?
Ans: The weave is characterized by diagonal lines of warp & weft floats on the face of the fabric on both side.

23. Some types of twil.
Ans: Zig-zag, Herring bone, Diamond, Broken, Rearrange, Stepped, Elongated, Shadded, Combined twill etc.

24. Direction of horizontal zig-zag twill.
Ans: Upon the warp yarn.

25. Is pointed draft found in horizontal zig-zag twill.
Ans: Yes.

26. Direction of vertical zig-zag twill.
Ans: Upon the weft yarn.

27. Is vertical zig-zag twill made from any complicated continuous twill?
Ans: Yes.

28. Herring bone twill.
Ans: Produced by reversal of twill direction.

29. Warp yarn is double in the no of weft yarn.
Ans: In Horizontal Herring bone twill.

30. Weft yarn is double in the no of warp yarn.
Ans: In Vertical Herring bone twill.

31. What is elongated twill?
Ans: Twill angle is less or more than 45 degree respect to horizontal or vertical axis.

32. Warp way elongated twill runs …
Ans: Around 45 degree angle.

33. Weft way elongated twill runs …
Ans: Bellow 45 degree angle.

34. Twill line of coarser & soft twisted yarn…
Ans: More prominent.

35. Twill line of fine & hard twisted yarn is…
Ans: Less prominent.

36. Twill line of folded yarn is…
Ans: More prominent.

37. Twill line of single yarn is…
Ans: Less prominent.

38. Define the warp satin.
Ans: If the prominence of warp floating are seen on the fabric surface.

39. Define the weft satin.
Ans: If the prominence of warp floating are seen on the fabric surface.

40. Show the types of fancy fabric.
Ans: Mock leno, Hucka back, Honey comb, Crepe weave, Bed cord, Pique.

41. What is Albert cloth?
Ans: A reversible cloth or self stitched double cloth overcoating, woven with a different design on each side in stripe or check.

42. What is alpaca fabric?
Ans: A fabric made from alpaca fabric.

43. What is Amazon cloth?
Ans: A light weight dress fabric with a full, soft handle made from worsted yarns as warp & soft spun worsted or woolen yarn as weft.

44. What is angora fabric?
Ans: A fabric woven from angora yarn.

45. What is Back beam?
Ans: A beam from which the warp is fed during sizing.

46. What is Back rest?
Ans: The roller at the back of a loom over which the warp threads from the beam pass.

47. Define the back felling?
Ans: The application of a feeling material to the back of a fabric.

48. What is balanced weave?
Ans: A weave in which the float of is the same in the warp & weft direction.

49. What is tension bar?
Ans: A bar composed of a weft yarn that has been stretched more or less than normal weft point during weaving.

50. What is bastard reed?
Ans: A reed in which dent space at each side is slightly greater than in the center.

51. What is flat bed?
Ans: A bed which provides a flat surface in a same pane as the table in which it is mounted.

52. What is Brocade?
Ans: A woven, patterned fabric using multi-colored threads

53. What is Damask?
Ans: It is similar to brocade but is finer, thiner. A woven, patterned fabric, using all one color - think fancy white cloth napkins. Usually silk, linen, cotton, rayon or synthetic blends.

54. What is voile?
Ans: Soft fine sheer fabric.

55. What is worsted?
Ans: Fine closely-woven wool.

56. What is Velvet?
Ans: Rich looking fabric with a thick pile (ie woven w/ lots of threads sticking up.)

57. What is Embossed velvet?
Ans: Design is normally heat pressed or chemically press to flatten some of the pile

58. What is cloth?
Ans: Cloth or fabric is a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres (thread or yarn) formed by weaving or knitting (textiles, or pressed into felt.)

59. What is knitting?
Ans: By transferring continuous strands of yarns into interlocking loops.

60. What are the basic structure of weft knitted fabric ?
  • plain or single jersey . 
  • rib structure .
  • 1*1 purl structure .  
  • 1*1 interlock structure .
61. Which elements are fabric raw material ?
Ans: Yarn, fiber, filament, solution .

62. What is cam ?
Ans: Cam is a mechanical device which transfer the rotory or circular motion of a m/c parts or shaft to the linear motion .

63. What are the types of cam ?
Ans: a) engineering cam -> circular cam

b) Knitting cam -> angular cam
Angular cam: i)knit cam ii)tuck cam iii) miss cam

64. How many needle is used single jersey ?

Ans: 1 set needle is used

65. How many needle is used double jersey ?
Ans: 2 set needle is used

66. Define weft ?
Ans: Yarn inlaid in a knitted structure in parallel to a course is called weft .

67. What is Fillar ?
Ans: Yarn inlaid in a knitted structure in parallel to a wale is called fillar .

68. What is Curling ?
Ans: The bending tendency of single jersey fabric .

69. What is Rib ?
Ans: Fabric produce 2 set of needle alternately to produce course of face loop & wales of back loop is called rib ?

70. Define Interlock ?
Ans: Fabric produce by knitting 2 set of needle face two face thus hiding all back loops is called Interlock.

71. What is Lacra ?
Ans: polyurothin fibre, stetching fibre .

72. What is Gauge ?
Ans: Needles /inch .

73. What is Needle peace ?
Ans: Needle peace = 1 / NeedleGauge.

74. What are the basic element warp knitting ?
Ans: a) needle
b)sinker : i) loop formation ii) holding down iii) knock over

75. What are the main features of single jersey plain fabric ?
Ans: i) technical face is smooth & v-shape is found & technical back is rough ii) produce by single set of needle iii) tendency of curling yarn .

76. What are the main features of rib structure ?
Ans: i) ) technical face & back is of same ii) it is normally knitted 2 set of needles iii) this types of fabric arenot curling tendency.

77. What is tussah?
Ans: brownish silk fabric. 

78. Dedine temple ?

Ans: A device used in weaving to hold the fabric at the fell as near as possible to the width of the warp in the reed .

79. Define tappet fabric?
Ans: Fabrics of simple weave structure that may be woven or a cam or tappet loon .

80. Define CPI ?
Ans: Cpi means course per inch. It indicate the how many course are prese nt in one inch length of the fabric.

81. How many types of fabric?
Ans: Woven, Knitted, Non woven, Braid.

82. What is weaving?
Ans: By using two sets of yarn interlacing at right angle according to a design is called weaving.

83. Define warp?
Ans: The sets of yarn which is used along the length of the fabric is termed as warp.

84. Define weft?
Ans: The sets of yarn which is used across the width of the fabric is termed as weft.

85. Write down the process sequence of dyed fabric production?
Ans: Yarn preparation, weaving, furnishing

86. What is the basic principle elements of Knitting?
Ans: Principle elements of Knitting- needle, sinker, cam, jack, yarn feeder

87. What is needle?
Ans: The hooked metal needle is the main principle knitting element of the Knitting m/c

88. Write down the function of needle?
Ans: The function of needle is – New yarn receiving, Loop forming, Carry the old loop, Clearing the old loop.

89. Write down the types of needle?
Ans: Bearded Needle, Latch Needle, Compound Needle.

90. What is sinker?
Ans: It is the second primary knitting element. It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles.

91. What is yarn feeder?
Ans: Yarn feeder mainly used for feed the yarn from package to Needle by yarn tensioner, yarn guide etc.

92. What is needle gauge?
Ans: No of Needles Per unit Length ( e.g. Needles/inch)

93. What is course?
Ans: Yarn inlaid horizontally with loop structure in a Knitting structure.

94. What is wale?
Ans: Yarn inlaid vertically with loop structure in a Knitting structure.

95. What is loop?
Ans: A piece of yarn used in knitted structure.

96. what is stitch?
Ans: Dimensionally stable structural unit of a knitted structure.

97. What is tuck loop?
Ans: When the needle receives new yarn but the old loop is not locked off in its regular course, it is known as Tuck loop.

Yarn Receiving + Not Clearing = Tuck loop.

98. What is miss loop?
Ans: When the needle neither receive new yarn nor allows the old loop to be inlaid without knitting is called miss loop.

Not Receiving + Not Clearing = Miss loop.

99. What is held loop?
Ans: An old knit loop which the needle has retained and not released & knocked-over at the next yarn feed.

100. What is drop stitch?
Ans: When the needle clear the old loop without receiving new yarn.

Next part will publish soon.....

About the Editor-in-Chief:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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