Study on Standard Spinning Testing Lab Equipments, Their Specifications and Functions

Study on Standard Spinning Testing Lab Equipments, Their Specifications and Functions
Mustaque Ahammed Mamun
Department of Textile Engineering
Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET)
Cell: +8801723300703
Email: mamuntex09@gmail.com



Introduction:
In textile industry, row material is the most dominant factor since it contributes 50-75% of total manufacturing cost. Any errors or negligence in selection and composition of raw material cannot be corrected by any means. Here omissions are beyond redemption.

In case of spinning industry the basic raw material is fiber which has a very high degree of variability. Its measurement is really a tough task but it is often said that if one can measure it then and only then he can manage it.

To observe the fiber testing instruments and procedure we have visited the Amber Cotton Mills, Banglabazzar, Gazipur which is a leading name in the textile sector of Bangladesh. They produce high quality knit yarn using the latest machinery. There cotton yarn is auto conned and spliced with the best modern machineries. The cotton yarn is Usterised and electronically cleaned. Amber has a complete range of latest USTER testing laboratory equipments.

Theory:
The quality of cotton varies considerably among the different varieties available. It is not easy to define quality in absolute terms. The most important fiber properties which determine the quality of cotton are its fiber length, fineness, maturity and strength.

Testing is a valuable aid to those connected to the production, distribution and consumption of textiles, if the instruments and techniques are used effectively. The right course of action may be taken from the results of testing. Hence it can be said that the testing is a means to an end.
Contribution of fiber properties to yarn quality
Testing is useful in the selection of raw material, in the control of process and quality of the product and in the development of the process.

Testing is the application of engineering knowledge and science to the measurement of the properties of textile fibers, yarns and fabrics. It involves the use of techniques, tools, instruments in the laboratory for the evaluation of the properties of these different forms of textiles.

Objects of the Assignment:
  1. To know about various testing machines.
  2. To know about the specifications of testing machines.
  3. To know about various functions of testing machines.
  4. To earnings knowledge about Q/C department.
  5. To judge proper characters of various samples such as fiber, yarn, sliver.
  6. To help various research for selection of raw material.
  7. For process control & product control.
Lab equipments Used in Amber Cottons:
  1. Wrap Block.
  2. Wrap Reel.
  3. Electronic Balance.
  4. Lea Strength Tester.
  5. Twist Tester.
  6. USTER HVI 1000
  7. USTER AFIS PRO.
  8. Evenness Tester: USTER Tester 5 (UT5).
  9. Yarn Moisture Meter.
  10. Digital Splicing Strength Tester.
Wrap Block

Machine specification:
  • Name: Wrap block
  • Company: MAG
  • Origin: India
Function of the machine:
Used for making Sliver and roving lea and count determination.

Necessary parameter:
Sample length (For sliver) = 6 Yards
Sample length (For roving) = 30 Yards
Weight unit= Weight both for sliver and roving is measured in grain.

Testing principle:

For sliver

6 yards sample is taken

Wt of sample is measured in gr

Then the wt is divided by 6 to get gm/yd

For Roving

30 yards sample is taken

Wt of sample is taken in grain

Then 250 is divided by the wt of sample to get the hank of sample.


Experimental set up:
Fig: Wrap block machine
Wrap reel

Machine specification:
  • Machine name: Wrap reel
  • Company: MAG
  • Origin: India
Function of the machine:
Used for making yarn lea and count measurement.

Necessary parameter:
  • Sample length: 120 yards
  • Reel circumference: 1.5 yards
  • Revolutions for making 120 yards yarn lea: 80
  • Traverse length: 1.5 inch
Testing procedure:
120 yards sample is made by wrap reel

Wt of sample is measured in gm

Then by adopting formula count is measured


Formula used:
Count (Ne) = 64.8/Lea weight in gram

Experimental set up:
Fig: Wrap reel machine
Lea strength tester

Machine specification:
  • Machine name: Lea strength tester
  • Model No: EleStretch XT
  • Company: MAG
  • Origin: India
Function of the machine:
Used for determining the strength of yarn lea.

Necessary Parameter:
  • Sample type: Yarn lea
  • Sample length: 120 yards
  • Clamp to clamp distance: 0.75 yards
  • Strength unit: CSP (Count Strength Product)
Testing procedure:

120 yards sample is taken by Wrap reel

Count is determined

Then sample is set in machine

Machine is run

After the sample being broken the reading (breaking tension in lb) is taken

Then by adopting formula CSP is calculated

Formula used for calculating CSP:
CSP=Count (Ne) X Breaking tension (lb)

Experimental set up:
Fig: Lea strength tester
Automatic twist tester

Machine specification:
  • Machine name: Automatic twist tester
  • Company: MAG
  • Origin: India
Function of the machine:
Used for checking the TPI in yarn.

Testing procedure:

20 inch sample is set in machine

Respective dead weight is inserted

Machine run

After the yarn being completely untwisted the machine is automatically stopped gives reading in display that indicates the TPI

Experimental set up:
Automatic twist tester
USTER HVI 1000

Machine specification:
  • Machine name: USTER HVI 1000
  • Company: Zellweger USTER
  • Origin: Switzerland
Function of the machine:
Used for testing the different parameters of cotton fiber.

Necessary parameter:
Measuring Sample weight: 9.5-10.5 gm

Modules:
  • Length and strength
  • Micronaire
  • Color and trash
Measuring content:
  • Spinning consistency index
  • Micronaire
  • Maturity index
  • Upper half mean length
  • Uniformity index
  • Short fiber index
  • Strength
  • Elongation
  • Moisture
  • Reflectance
  • Yellowness
  • Color grade
  • Trash count
  • Trash area
  • Trash grade
Formula used for calculating SCI:
SCI= -414.67 + 2.9 X Strength-9.32 X Micronaire + 49.17 X Length (inch) + 4.74 X Uniformity + 0.65 X Rd + 0.36 X b

Experimental set up:
USTER HVI 1000
USTER AFIS PRO

Machine specification:
  • Machine name: USTER AFIS PRO
  • Company: Zellweger USTER
  • Origin: Switzerland
Function of the machine:
Used for testing the different parameters of raw cotton and sliver.

Necessary parameter:
Measuring Sample weight = 0.40-0.60 gm

USTER AFIS PRO measures 3000 individual fibers to give a report.

Test Modules:
  • NC( Nep classification) Module
  • L & M( Length and Maturity) Module
  • T (Trash) Module
Measuring content:

1. NC (Nep classification) Module:
  • Nep count per gram
  • Nep size (micron)
  • Seed coat nep count per gram
  • Seed coat nep size (micron)
  • Mean length
2. L & M (Length and Maturity) Module:
  • Mean length by weight
  • Length variation by weight
  • Upper quartile length by weight
  • Short fiber content by weight
  • Mean length by Number
  • Short fiber content by number
  • Fineness(militex)
  • Maturity ratio
  • Immature fiber content
3. T (Trash) module:
  • Dust count per gram
  • Dust size (micron)
  • Trash size (micron)
  • Visible foreign matter (%)
Experimental set up:
USTER AFIS PRO
Evenness Tester

Machine specification:
  • Machine name: Evenness tester
  • Company: Zellweger USTER
  • Origin: Switzerland
Function of the machine:
Used for determining the evenness of sliver, roving and yarn.

Experimental set up:
Evenness tester
Conclusion:
The above discussion gives an idea about main latest fiber testing techniques and this concludes that one can achieve higher accuracy with least time in this system. Fiber testing is an important part in the final product, so it is clear one can achieve great quality with accurate testing techniques, which were discussed in this paper. Apart from this, various methods are also included which will give proper results in fiber testing.

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