Comprehensive Study on Reactive Dyes

Comprehensive Study on Reactive Dyes

Sikander Anwer
Department in Textile Engineering
University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Cell: 0322-4875571
Email:111811016@umt.edu.pk



Definition:
In a reactive dye a chromospheres contains a substituent that reacts with the substrate. Reactive dyes have good fastness properties owing to the bonding that occurs during dyeing. Reactive dyes are most commonly used in dyeing of cellulose like cotton or flax, but also wool is dye able with reactive dyes. Reactive dyeing is the most important method for the coloration of cellulosic fibers. Reactive dyes can also be applied on wool and nylon; in the latter case they are applied under weakly acidic conditions. Reactive dyes have a low utilization degree compared to other types of dyestuff, since the functional group also bonds to water, creating hydrolysis. 
 
The reactive dyes are broadly divided in to two categories:
  1. Dyes reacting through Nucleophilic substitution reactions
  2. Dyes reacting through Nucleophilic addition reactions.

S-B-C-L-F
Where,
 
S= Solubilizing
B= Bridge
C= Chromospheres
L= Leaving Group
F= Functional Group

Structure:
Properties:
  • Covalent Bond Formation.
  • Good Affinity for the Cellulosic Fibers.
  • Smaller Molecule Size.
  • Negatively Charged.
  • Remove Negative Charge by Adding Salts, i.eNaCl.
Major Factors:
  1. pH
  2. Amount of Alkali
  3. Dyeing Temperature
  4. Electrolyte Concentration
  5. Time of Dyeing
  6. Liquor Ratio
Types of Reactive Dyes:

1. Monochlorotriazine:
  • Good Substantively for the Fibers.
  • High Degree of Fixation Efficiency.
Structure:
Properties:
  • Reaction can take place in more energetic reaction conditions.
Temperature:
  • 80 °C
Solubility:
  • Reaction can take place in more energetic reaction conditions
Fixation:
  • Haloheterocycle.
  • High Degree of Fixation Efficiency.
Sustainability:
  • pH value of 10.5
Conclusion:
  • They are very energetic and have good substantive property among all cellulosic textile materials.
  • They has High Fixation rate.
2. Bi-functional Dye:

Structure:
Properties:
  • Bifunctional dyes carry two reactive groups. (Homo and hetero bifunctional dyes)
  • They are known for their excellent dyeing efficiency and overall fastness properties.
  • They offer enhanced reproducibility especially for medium to pale shades.
Temperature:
  • 60 °C
Solubility:
The dyes were conventional Dichlorotriazine type, with the end condensation of B-sulphato ethyl sulfone to have different type of reactive group in a single molecule.

Fixation:
  • Haloheterocycle
Sustainability:
  • They offer level dyeing performance for even non-critical substrates.
Conclusion:
  • They require low temperature for dye uptake.
  • Excellent dyeing Efficiency.
  • Produce pale shades.
3. Dichlorotriazine:

Properties:
  • This dye is very easy to work with; you never need to steam or otherwise heat-set the fabric.
  • These dyes are relatively non-toxic
  • Remarkable wash fastness.
Temperature:
  • 80̊C
Conclusion:
  • Easy to dye, and has good fastness property.
  • Non-toxic dye and Environmental friendly.
4. Aminofluorotriazine:

Properties:
  • Used in warm water.
  • It 'keeps' better in solution.
  • Easier to wash the excess unattached dye.
  • There is not as wide a choice of colors.
Temperature:
  • 50˚C
Conclusion:
These can’t be used in cold water, it is easily apply able on material. Major problem is that we don’t have wide color variety.

5. Dichloroquinoxaline:
  • Used in "cold" dyeing.
  • Remarkable acceptable results.
Temperature:
  • 35° to 40°C
Conclusion:
  • Require less temperature and used in cold dyeing.
  • Acceptable Results.
6. Aminochlorotriazine:

Properties:
  • Hot water dyes.
  • Usually used for silk painting.
  • Dyes are chemically similar to Procion MX dyes.
Temperature:
  • 80̊C
Conclusion:
These are basically hot water dyes and mostly used in ranges of printing. These are chemically same as Procion MS dyes. Problem is these are less reactive.

7. Reactive Cold Dyes:

Structure:
Properties:
  • Primarily used for tinting textiles.
  • There are also commercially available fiber reactive dyes for protein and polyamide fibers.
Temperature:
  • 40°C
Solubility:
They are easily mix with water for temporary arrangements after fabric introduced they are collectively attached to the substrate.

Fixation:
  • High Fixation and high Tinctorial values.
Sustainability:
  • Improving the product's color stability and wash ability
Conclusion:
  • Used for Tinting Textiles material
  • Easily available and has a variety of fibers that are dyed with it.
8. Reactive Hot Dyes:

Structure:
Properties:
  • Suitable for printing cellulosic and viscose fabric.
Temperature:
  • 60°C
Solubility:
The dyes can be subdivided into cold, warm, and hot dyes according to the reactivity of the anchor groups. In alkaline environment the formation of hydrolyzed, non-reactive oxy-dye competes with the dyeing reaction.

Fixation:
These dyes are fixed at 100C-150C by steaming.

Sustainability:
  • Low in stability the hydrolyzed dyes have least tendency to stain adjacent white portion in print.
Conclusion:
Usually used for viscose and cotton fabric, they are moderate temperature dye and good fastness results occur.

9. Reactive HE Dyes:

Structure:
Properties:
  • High Exhaust Dye
  • Used for Cotton and Cellulosic materials.
Temperature:
  • 80°C
Solubility:
  • Excellent built up as short as well as long liquor ratios.
Fixation:
  • High Fixation and high Tinctorial values, hence economic in use.
Sustainability:
  • Excellent reproducibility and good compatibility.
Conclusion:
  • Used in Exhaust dye and good colors availability.
  • Can be easily available in short scales of dyeing procedure.
10. Reactive ME Dyes:

Structure:
Properties:
  • Reactive ME dyes are suitable for dyeing, padding & printing of all types of cellulosic material.
  • They offer high grade of all round fastness properties.
Temperature:
  • 25-30°C
Solubility:
  • Excellent built-up, at short as well as long liquor ratios.
Fixation:
They have an advantage of high degree of exhaustion & fixation rates. They offer excellent leveling properties & excellent alkali stability.

Sustainability:
They have an advantage of high degree of exhaustion & fixation rates. They offer excellent leveling properties & excellent alkali stability.

Conclusion:
Suitable for dyeing on cellulose. Require less temperature and done on room temperature. Great fastness and high degree of exhaustion.

11. Dylon Cold:

Structure:
Properties:
  • DYLON Hand Dye sachets are ideal for tie-dyeing.
  • Permanent results to natural fabrics (Cotton, linen & viscose; wool, silk, polyester/cotton & polyester/viscose will dye to a lighter shade.
  • Whole spectrum of possibilities with color.
  • DYLON have a dye to suit your needs.
  • Dylon is a Cold Water dye.
Temperature:
  • 40̊C
Solubility:
  • It is easily mixed in cold water and make a bond with fabric easily.
Fixation:
  • The major functional group in Dylon is “chlorodifluoropyrimidine”.
Sustainability:
  • It is a less commendable sort of dye.
Conclusion:
  • Easily bobd formation with fabric and good solute for water.
  • It is easily mixed in cold water easily and require less temperature.
12. Vinylsulphone Dye (VS):

Structure:
Properties:
  • Vinyl sulfone dyes are usually used for silk painting and fixed by steaming.
  • Vinyl sulfone dyes are particularly useful for chemical resist dyeing.
  • Remazol dyes are more suitable for dyeing for later discharge (bleaching) than are other fiber reactive dyes.
  • Subjected to the high pHs used in dyeing cotton.
  • Vinyl sulfone dyes are a type of fiber reactive dye that is less reactive
Temperature:
  • 60˚C
Solubility:
Vinyl sulfones contain a 'masking' group, on the reactive part of the molecule, which prevents them from reacting with the dye water until it is removed. This makes the dyes much longer lasting in water.

Fixation:
  • Activated double bond.
Sustainability:
Vinyl sulfones contain a 'masking' group, on the reactive part of the molecule, which prevents them from reacting with the dye water, and prevents easily to the core of the fibers and in result long lasting effects produced.

Conclusion:
They are widely used in exhaust method, these have excellent fastness in light and washing.

13. Procion MX:

Structure:
Properties:
  • This dye is very easy to work.
  • Never need to steam or otherwise heat-set the fabric.
  • Dyes are relatively non-toxic.
  • Generic name “dichlorotriazine”.
Temperature:
  • 30°C
Solubility:
  • It is well mixed in hot water as well as room temperature, and has a good penetration in the fabric.
Fixation:
  • No running of the colors, in the same load as whites clothes washed.
Sustainability:
  • Remarkable wash-fastness found in all fiber-reactive dyes.
Conclusion:
14. Procion H:

Structure:
Properties:
  • They are commonly used in tie dye and other textile crafts.
  • Procion H-E and H-EXL are hot water dyes.
  • They are usually used for silk.
  • They can be purchased in the form of powdered dye or dissolved in water; the latter removes the dangers associated with breathing dye powder
Temperature:
  • 80°C
Solubility:
  • Be used in "cold" dyeing, but higher than the optimum temperature.
Fixation:
  • They are dichlorotriazine dyes and were originally made by Imperial Chemical Industries.
  • The system is Aminochlorotriazine (monochlorotriazine).
Sustainability:
Procion H dye powders (which they call 'PRO H-Reactive Dyes') "are an ideal alternative to French Dyes for traditional silk painting because they need less steam time and are concentrated."

Conclusion:
  • Hot water dyes and has good fastness properties.
  • They are usually used for silk.
15. Cibacron F:

Structure:
Properties:
  • Being "the only fiber reactive dye in the world" would certainly please the sales force of Procion's manufacturer
  • "Cold Water" fiber reactive
  • The new dye Is called Cibacron F and is a product of CIBA-Geigy Corp.
  • Increase in the palette of colors
  • It is also easier to wash the excess unattached dye out
Temperature:
  • 50°C
Solubility:
  • Cibacron F dyes can be used in warm water, instead of extremely hot water like some dyes.
Fixation:
Cibacron F dyes can be mixed with Procion MX series even though take up rates will vary. Since the Cibacron F color series does not include a turquoise, many dyers use the turquoise from the Procion MX series.

Sustainability:
Its ability to "cold batch," efficiently, that is to be set without heat or steam, means that it is a welcome addition to the palettes of weavers who warp paint, and printers and fabric painters who work with limited equipment. Silk surface designers appreciate the ease of application and rich colors on silk without steaming.

Conclusion:
  • Cold fiber Reactive Dye, and Increase the number of palletes.
  • It is also easier to wash the excess unattached dye out
16. Prochem Sabracron F:

Structure:
Properties:
  • Powdered form
Temperature:
  • 60°C
Solubility:
  • Urea Water add Sabracron F Reactive dye powder, for easily formation of dye solution.
Fixation:
Allow the fabric to "cure" for a minimum of 24 hours for pale shades, and up to 48 hours for Turquoise and dark shades. Room temperature must be above 70EF (22EC) for the dyes to fix properly. It is optional to wrap the fabric in plastic during the "cure" time.

Sustainability Procedure:
Untie and unfold the fabric. Rinse the fabric thoroughly in a bucket of room temperature 75Eto 95EF (24Eto 35EC) water. Change the rinse water 3 to 4 times. Do not stack the rinsed shirts on top of themselves before the HOT Synthrapol wash, because the dye frequently transfers and stains other fabric it. touches.

Conclusion:
  • Urea Water add Sabracron F Reactive dye powder, for easily formation of dye solution.
  • And has good fastness properties against sunlight , washing, rubbing.
17. Levafix E:

Structure:
Add caption
Properties:
  • Sell under the name "Furian" in Finland.
  • For Small-scale users.
  • Used in "cold" dyeing.
Temperature:
  • 50°C
Fixation:
Dichloroquinoxaline is a functional group that help the dye molecule to attached with cellulose molecule and make a covenant bond.

Conclusion:
For Small-scale users, used in "cold" dyeing.

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