List of Equipments Used in a Spinning Lab

List of Equipments Used in a Spinning Lab
Mustaque Ahammed Mamun
Department of Textile Engineering
Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET)
Cell: +8801723300703
Email: mamuntex09@gmail.com



Introduction:
The global spinning industry is currently undergoing big changes, not least towards the use of more modem and faster spinning machinery and computer system. These high speed machines require much cleaner raw material, and therefore they constantly challenge the testing machinery developers to provide faster and more accurate testers and quality controllers. The machineries described in this report are mainly related with cotton spinning testing lab.

Factory location: DELTA spinning mill, Konabari, Gazipur

Objects:
  1. To know about different types of machine used in spinning lab.
  2. To know about the specification of different types of textile testing machine.
  3. To know about their function.
  4. To know about the special purpose of different machine.
  5. To know about the machines, which are necessary to develop a good quality control lab (Spg ).
Quality assurance testing equipments in DELTA spinning mill:
Serial No.
Machine name
Origin
Testing material
01
USTER HVI SPECTRUM
SWITZERLAND
FIBRE
02
USTER AFIS PRO
SWITZERLAND
SLIVER TO ROVING
03
USTER TESTER- 5
SWITZERLAND
SLIVER TO ROVING
04
USTER TENSOJET-4
SWITZERLAND
YARN
05
ZEIGLE LEA STRENGTH TESTER
GERMANY
YARN
06
ZEIGLE WRAP REEL(L232)
GERMANY
YARN
07
ZEIGLE WRAP BLOCK(L212)
GERMANY
SIVER TO ROVING
 
Machine No-01

Specification of machine:
  • Machine name-USTER HVI SPECTRUM
  • Company-Zellweger USTER
  • Country – Switzerland
  • Software – USTER HVI 1000
Figure: USTER HVI SPECTRUM
Functions of HVI:
The USTER® HVI 1000 measures the most important cotton fiber properties for cotton classing purposes (and high-throughput requirements for spinning mills.) These are length, uniformity, short fiber index, micronaire, maturity index, strength, elongation, color and trash, and moisture content.

Features of HVI: 
The following features are provided with the USTER® HVI 1000:

Main Equipment: Length/Strength, Moisture Content, Micronaire and Color/Trash Instruments.

Computer Software: The USTER® HVI 1000 is a menu driven design that allows quick access and selection of testing, setup, calibration, and data management. These features include:
  • Windows XP operating system with icon-based software
  • Simple user interface
  • Error messages for troubleshooting
  • Network capabilities
Computer Hardware: Computer system with 2.8 GHz PC with 512 MB RAM, P&P Sound Card, DVD-R drive, 1.44 MB (3.5-inch) Floppy Disk

Drive, 60 GB or better hard drive, and Pentium P4 processor
  • Keyboard with Integrated Touchpad
  • 17” High Resolution Flat Panel LCD Monitor with Integrated Sound Bar
  • Balance
  • Printer
  • Integrated Bar Code Scanner
Barcode Reader (M700)
  • UPS – Uninterrupted Power Supply device
  • UV Module
  • NEP Module
Additional features: Safety interlocks to prevent injury from un-authorized entry to the instrument
  • Relative humidity and temperature probe
  • Moisture measurement
  • Easily accessible Lint Waste Box with two separate access doors
  • Computer System easily removed for service
  • Configuration can be straight line configuration or “L” configuration
  • Industrial brushed stainless steel top and work surfaces
  • Single point adjustable brush pressure
  • Integrated air enclosure around balance to eliminate influences of air turbulence
  • Password protected operational software
  • Complete Operator Manual included
Laboratory Temperature: These specifications are for the ambient conditions referenced below. If the air line will be subjected to temperatures that could promote condensation, a water filter attached to the air line inside the lab is recommended to remove any condensation that may occur.

Ambient Conditions: According to ISO 139, the following ambient conditions must be maintained in the laboratory in order to get repeatable and comparable test results:
  • Temperature: 20±2°C; 65 °F to 72 °F
  • Relative Humidity: 65±2%
For consistent test results, fiber samples should be conditioned in the laboratory environment with the above-mentioned ambient conditions for 24 hours. Samples should be laid out openly in the laboratory, and taken out of plastic bags, in order for the cotton to fully condition to the environment.

Test parameters of HVI: there are three modules in USTER HVI-
  • MIC module(MIC and maturity
  • Length and strength module (Upper Half Mean Length, Uniformity Index, Short Fiber Index, strength, elongation)
  • Color and trash module (Rd, +b, color grade, trash grade, trash area, trash count, moisture)
By the HVI 100% cotton samples in the form of bale or opened and cleaned material (card mat) are measured.

Principles of fiber testing using HVI:

Sample preparation: The fibro gram method is preferred while preparing the sample for fiber length estimation. The sample has to be presented to the measuring zone by clamping the fibers at a random catch point. Here the fibrosampler is used. The test specimen obtained using the fibro sampler/comb combination is a beard of fibers with individual fibers projecting to different length from the clamping point. In HVI, the strength testing is also done on the same beard of fibers with individual fibers projecting to different lengths from the clamping point. In HVI, strength testing is also done on the same beard of fibers prepared for length measurement. While using the low volume instrument -fibro stelo for strength measurement, the sampling is done on the separate fiber bundles, of which 15 mm long is prepared after remounting the short fibers by combing. For micronaire testing, a sample of cotton weighing approximately 8.5-11.5 grams is used. For color testing, random mass of fibers sufficient to cover the test window is used for measurement.
  • Sample weight for MIC measurement-8.5 gm (range 8.5-11.5 gm)
  • Sample weight for other test- 30-40 gm to cover the test window
Measurements and Calculations:

Micronaire: Micronaire Reading

Measuring principle: Measured by relating airflow resistance to the specific surface of fibers.

The micronaire module of HVI uses the airflow method to estimate the fineness value of cotton. A sample known weight is compressed in a cylinder to known volume and subjected to an air current at a known pressure. The rate of airflow through this porous plug of fiber is taken to be a measure of the fineness of cotton. The number of fibers in a given weight of cotton will be more in the case of finer fibers than in the case of coarser fibers. If air is blown through these samples, the plug containing finer fibers will be found to offer a greater resistance than the plug with coarser fibers. This is due to the fact that the total surface area in the case of the former will be greater than the latter and hence the drag on the air flowing past will be more. This differentiating factor is made use of to indirectly measure the fineness of cotton.

The instrument operates as follows. The chamber lid is closed; a piston at the chamber bottom compresses the fiber to a fixed and known volume. A regulated stream of air is then forced through the sample and the pressure drop across the sample is applied to a differential pressure transducer. The transducer outputs an analog signal voltage proportional to the pressure drop. This analogue voltage is applied to an analogue to digital converter, which outputs a digital signal representing the voltage. Cotton with known fineness values is tested and the voltages obtained are used to obtain the calibration curve, which is used for all subsequent testing to display the cotton fineness.

The fineness is expressed in the form of a parameter called the micronaire value, which is defined as the weight of one inch of the fiber in micrograms. Maturity of cotton also influences the micronaire value.
Micronaire values
Fibre grade
Less than 3.0
Very fine
3.0 to 3.6
Fine
3.7 to 4.7
Medium
4.8 to 5.4
Coarse
5.5 to higher
Very coarse

Maturity measurement: Maturity Index (Mat)
Measuring principle: Calculated using a sophisticated algorithm based on several HVI™ measurements. Maturity indicates the degree of cell wall thickness within a cotton sample. The HVI SPECTRUM Maturity index correlates very well to the AFIS Maturity Ratio and the reference method of microscopy (cross-sectional analysis).
Maturity Index
Description
Below 0.75
Uncommon
0.75 to 0.85
Immature
0.86 to 0.95
Mature
Above 0.95
Very mature

Length: Upper Half Mean Length, Uniformity Index, Short Fiber Index

Measuring principle: Measured optically in a tapered fiber beard which is automatically prepared, carded, and brushed.

Upper Half Mean Length (Len):
The by weight measurement of the Upper Half Mean Length is calculated from the Fibrogram. A fiber beard of randomly clamped fibers is scanned optically across its length and the Fibrogram is drive from it. The Upper Half Mean Length corresponds to the classer’s staple length as well as to the AFIS Upper Quartile length by weight. Please note that a length range is assigned in inches for each length staple or code. The ranges calculated in millimeters do not line up exactly due to the conversion calculation. However, inches or 32nds are mainly used for staple length determination in the international cotton tread and are therefore binding.
 Fibre length(Inches)
UHM (inches)
UHM (mm)
Code (32nds)
<13/16
<0.79
<20.1

13/16
.80-0.85
20.1-21.6


7/8
0.90 – 0.92
22.9-23.4
29
15/16
0.93 – 0.95
23.6 – 24.1
30
31/32
0.96-0.98
24.4 – 24.9
31
1
0.99-1.01
25.1 – 25.8
32
1 1/32
1.02-1.04
25.9 – 26.4
33
1 1/16
1.05-1.07
26.7 – 27.2
34
1 3/32
1.08-1.10
27.3 – 27.9
35
1 1/8
1.11-1.13
28.2 – 28.7
36
1 5/32
1.14-1.17
29.0 – 29.7
37
1 3/16
1.18-1.20
30.0 – 30.5
38
1 7/32
1.21-1.23
30.7 – 31.2
39
1 ¼
1.24-1.26
31.5 – 32.0
40
1 9/32
1.27-1.29
32.3 – 32.8
41
1 5/16
1.30- 1.32
33.0 – 33.5
42
1 11/32
1.33 -1.35
33.8 – 34.3
43
1 3/8
>1.36
>34.5
44

Uniformity Index (Unf):
The uniformity index expresses the ratio of the mean length to the upper half mean length. It is an indication of the distribution of fiber length within the Fibrogram.

Uniformity index = Mean Length/upper half mean length.
Uniformity Index
Description
Below 77
Very low
77 to 80
Low
81 to 84
Medium
85 to 87
High
87 and higher
Very high

Short Fiber Index (SFI):
The short fiber index is a value that is calculated using a sophisticated algorithm. The Fibrogram is mathematically converted to a length distribution curve. The SIF is an indication of the amount of fibers (%) that are less to than 0.5 inch (12.7mm) in length. It correlates very well to the AFIS short fiber content by weight (SFC).
Short Fiber Index
Description
Below 6
Very low
6 to 9
Low
10 to 13
Medium
14 to 17
High
18 and higher
Very high
 
Strength (Strength, Elongation):
Measuring principle: Strength is measured physically by clamping a fiber bundle between 2 pairs of clamps at known distance. The second pair of clamps pulls away from the first pair at a constant speed until the fiber bundle breaks. The distance it travels, extending the fiber bundle before breakage, is reported as elongation. The bundle strength is breaking strength of the cotton fibers in grams per tex. The fineness is calculated from the micronaire value. The fiber beard is broken at a continuous deformation rate (CRE= Constant Rate of Extension) and with a 1/8-inch distance between the clamps.
Strength
Description
Less than 21
Very weak
22 to 24
Weak
25 to 27
Medium
28 to 30
Strong
31 and higher
Very strong

Elongation (Elg):
Elongation is a measure of the elastic behavior of the fibers in the bundle. The fibers are clamped in the bundle with a 1/8 inch distance between the clamps. The first pair of clamps is stationary and the back pair of clamps is pulled away at a constant rate. The distance the fibers extend before they break is recorded and expressed as a percentage elongation.
Elongation
Description
Less than 5.0
Very low
5.0 to 5.8
Low
5.9 to 6.7
Medium
6.8 to 7.6
High
7.7 and higher
Very high

Moisture (Moist)
Measuring principle: Moisture content of the cotton sample at the time of testing, using conductive moisture probe. Moisture is the percentage of water that is present in the sample being tested. Moisture in the cotton varies with time, temperature, and humidity to which the samples have been exposed. Consistent moisture is necessary to maintain HVI SPECTRUM test result on the same level of accuracy and precision. The best level precision and accuracy are obtained when sample moisture has an average of 6.5% - 8%.
Moisture
Description
Below 4.5
Very low
4.5 to 6.5
Low
6.5 to 8.0
Medium
8.0 to 10.0
High
10.0 and higher
Very high

Color: Rd (Whiteness), +b (Yellowness), Color Grade

Measuring principle:  
Measured optically by different color filters, converted to USDA Upland or Pima Color Grades or regional customized color chart.

Reflectance (Rd): This value expresses the whiteness of the light that is reflected by the cotton fibers. It corresponds to the reflectance (Rd) represented in the Nickerson/hunter color chart. It is used in conjunction with yellowness (+b) to determine the instrument-measured color grade of cotton.

Yellowness (+b): This value expresses the yellowness of the light that that is reflected by the cotton fibers. The yellowness (+b) of the sample is determined by using a yellow fiber. It correspond to the +b value represented in the Nickerson/Hunter color chart. The yellowness is used in conjunction with the reflectance (Rd) value to determine the instrument-measured color grade of the cotton.

Color Grade (C Grade): The color grade of a cotton sample is determined in a two filter colorimeter. This objective method was developed by Nickerson and Hunter in the early 1940s to check the USDA cotton grade standards. Today, it is intended to completely replace the subjective visual grade standards. Today, it is intended to completely replace the subjected visual grade determined by the cotton classer.

Trash: Particle Count, % Surface Area Covered by Trash, Trash Code

Measuring principle: Measured optically by utilizing a digital camera, and converted to USDA trash grades or customized regional trash standards.

Trash Count (Tr cnt): Trash is measured on the same glass window as the color measurement. The sample is illuminated form underneath the glass window, and a black and white CCD camera analyzes the changes in pixels. All particles that cover the glass window are counted one by one and the results are expressed in trash particle counts per surface area.

Trash Area (Tr Area): The area that is covered by a trash particle is measured at the same time the particle is counted. The area that is covered by single particle is summed up with all areas of the other particles counted on the surface glass window. The result is expressed as “%Area”.

For example, a small number of trash counts can result in a high “%Area” value if the particles are large. On the country, a high number of particles counts with a small “%Area” value indicate the trash is smaller in size (i.e. pepper trash).

Trash Grade (Tr Grade): This is the trash or leaf grade that is determined by calibrating the HVI SPECTRUM with known sample (i.e. trash standards). These samples are usually numbered form 1 to 7 with increasing amount of trash as the number gets large. The standards used for calibration can be supplied by the USDA or established by the official cotton standards agency in any cotton producing country.

Basic statistic: When analyzing test result of the USTER(R) HVI SPECTRUM some basic statistic is important. The three terms used most often in analyzing test results are:
  • Average or mean value
  • Standard deviation
  • Coefficient of variation or CV value
Specification of USTER AFIS PRO:
Machine no
02
Machine Name
USTER(R) AFIS PRO
Brand Name
Zellweger
Origin
USA
Model
Pro
Figure: USTER(R) AFIS PRO
Function:
The function of this machine is to measure different information about cotton and sliver

Description:
The USTER(R) AFIS PRO comes with different modules e.g. NC module, L & M module and T module.

The NC module measures the following:
  • Neps count per gram – nep Cnt/g
  • Nep size [micron] – nep size[µm]
  • Seed coat nep count per gram – nep Cnt/g
  • Seed coat nep Size [micron] – SCN [µm]
The L & M module measures the following:
  • Mean length by weight – L(w)
  • Length variation by weight – L(w) CV%
  • Upper Quartile length by weight – UQL(w)
  • Short fiber content by weight – SFC(w)
  • Mean length by number – L(n)
  • Length variation by number – L(n) CV%
  • 5%-Length by number – L(n) 5%
  • Short fiber content by number – SFC(n)
  • Fineness [militex] – FINE [mtex]
  • Maturity ratio – MAT
  • Immature fiber content [%] – IFC [%]
The T module measures the following:
  • Dust count per gram – Dust Cnt/g
  • Dust size [micron] – Dust size[µm]
  • Trast count per gram – Trast Cnt/g
  • Trast size [micron] – Trast [µm]
  • Visible Foreign matter [%] – VFM [%]
Specification of USTER TESTER 5:
Machine no
03
Machine Name
USTER® TESTER 5
Company Name
USTER TECHNOLOGY AG
Origin
Switzerland
Model
S-400

Figure: USTER® TESTER 5
Functions:
  • Capacitive measurement of mass variations and imperfections in yarn, roving and
  • Capacitive measurement of mass variations and imperfections in yarn, roving and sliver of staple fibers.
  • Automatic check of all measured values, diagrams and spectrograms.
  • Yarn classification based on the USTER
STATISTICS
  • Measurement of foreign matters.
  • Collection, evaluation and storage of measurement values.
  • QualiProfile, graphic presentation of the overall quality.
  • Filter functions for quick data retrieval and for the preparation of long-term reports.
  • Simulation of yarn boards, woven and knitted fabrics.
  • Editor for customizing report layouts.
Types of sensors used in USTER TESTER 5:
There are three types of sensors and work separately
  1. Sensor-CS (It identifies the thick and thin place, UV% etc.)
  2. Sensor-OH (It measure hairiness)
Sensor-FM (It measure amount of foreign matter which present in yarn)

Different test specification:

Sliver test:
  • Taken sample: 50 to 100 meter
  • Speed: 25 m/min
  • Time: 1 minute
  • Use sensor: CS only
  • Note: The test result will be accurate if the large sample is taken.
Roving test:
  • Test speed: 50 to 100 m/min,  50 m/min maximum used
  • Time: 1 minute
  • Use sensor: CS and FM
Yarn test
Taken sample:
  • Speed: 400 to 1000 m/min, 400 m/min maximum used
  • Time: 1 minute
  • Use sensor: CS, OH and FM
Machine No-04
  • Specification of USTER TENSOJET-4:
  • Machine name-single yarn strength tester
  • Company- Zellweger uster tester
  • Origin – Switzerland
  • Function of the machine: The USTER TENSOJET-4 is used to measure single yarn strength
Technical data:
  • Machine speed: 200 m/min (max 400 m/min)
  • No of stock: 1-5, 00,000 but available used 200
  • No of feeder: 24 bobbins
The machine show the diagram of breaking force(N), elongation%, tenacity(cN/tex), breaking work (cN.cm) etc
Figure : single yarn strength tester (USTER TENSOJET-4)
Test results of USTER TENSOJET-4 :
Specification of Zeigle lea strength tester:
Machine no
05
Machine Name
Yarn Strength Tester(Lea)
Brand Name
Zweigle
Origin
Germany
Model
L-427

Figure: Yarn Strength Tester (Lea)
Function:
This machine is mainly used for measuring yarn strength.

Description:
First take a lee from the wrap reel machine and clamped in this machine, then run the machine according to set program. The gap between two clamp is increased and after sometime breaks the lee. At which load the lee is broke indicate in the display, it is shown into pound (lb).To find out CSP the load is multiplied with yarn count

Specification of Zeigle wrap reel:
Machine no
06
Machine Name
Wrap reel
Brand Name
Zweigle
Origin
Germany
Model
L-232
Figure: Wrap reel
Function:
The main function of this machine is to prepare a lee for yarn count test

Description:
It is generally made of steel with a reel. The circumference of the reel is 54 inch and measure 120 yds of yarn then determines the yarn count.

Specification of Zeigle wrap block:
Machine no
07
Machine Name
Wrap block
Brand Name
Zweigle
Origin
Germany
Model
L-202
Figure: Wrap block
Function:
Use to measure the hank or count of preparatory process such as sliver, roving.

Description:
It is generally made of steel with a reel. The circumference of the reel is 36 inch and determines the length and weight by balance. finally measure the weight/unit length.
  • Length for sliver-6 yards
  • Length for roving-30 yards
Remarks:
The THE DELTA SPINNING MILLS LIMITED is one of the 100% export oriented mills in Bangladesh. The testing laboratory of this factory to maintain best quality product. For this reason the modern machine is used in this laboratory. The general manager (Factory) who gave permission to enter in the factory. Beside this the general manager (Laboratory) and Sr.Quality officer also help to collect the necessary information about the testing machinery in those spinning laboratory. This knowledge will be helpful in future.

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