Study on Different Laboratory Equipments of a Modern Dye House

Study on Different Laboratory Equipments of a Modern Dye House
Rofiquzzaman Raju
Chittagong Textile Engineering College
Contact: 01714419781
Email: rtextile.finance@gmail.com



Introduction:
Satisfaction of customer demands is the quality of a product. It is the extent of excellence of a product that indicates that whether it meets the customer ultimate demand or not. As textiles, an integrated word is related to different segments and each segment is responsible to meet up the requirements of subsequent segments and finally the ultimate user. Dyeing, the process of coloring textile materials with some medium. It is the section in which raw fabrics are dyed with coloring materials i.e. dyes in some medium i.e. water along with several chemicals. Fabrics are colored as per the buyer requirements. Before going to the bulk production, a sample fabric is dyed in the dyeing lab. If the desired shade is produced here then it is go for bulk production at large amount. However, primary recipe to develop particular shade is prepared here and then finally implemented in the production section. A standard quality lab provides all opportunities to produce particular shade without any disturbance. Besides, the different tests are done in the physical lab to evaluate the different parameters of dyed fabric. Tests conducted in the physical lab basically based on the buyer requirements. During testing, different types of testing method are followed which is varied from buyer to buyer. To learn this, an observation was done at ECHO-TEX LIMITED; an export oriented apparel industry produces all types of knitting garments. In this article, discussion will be done on dyeing lab of that factory.

Objects:
  • To know the different chemicals and equipments used in the dyeing lab.
  • To understand about the different test carried out in the physical lab.
  • To know the responsibility of different managerial designation in the dyeing lab.
  • Understanding the function of different machineries used in dyeing lab.
Factory Agenda:-
  1. Name of the Project: ECHOTEX LTD.
  2. Location: Chandra pallibidyut, Kaliakoir, Gazipur.
  3. Established year: 2003
  4. Status:100% Export Oriented Knit composite
  5. Project cost : TK. 2500 crore
  6. Production capacity: 2100000 pcs/month
  7. Man power: 7000 people
Layout of the Dyeing lab:-
Layout of Dyeing lab
Figure: Layout of Dyeing lab of ECHO-TEX Limited
(Click on image for large size)
Management structure and their responsibility of the dyeing lab: 
Management structure and their responsibility of the dyeing lab
(Click on image for large size)

Types of Dyeing lab:-
Types of Dyeing lab
Types of Dyeing lab
Name of the Machine Used in Chemical Lab:

Machine No.01 and 02

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Sample dyeing machine
  • Brand Name: Datacolor AHIBA IRTM
  • Origin : U S A
  • No. of pot: 19
  • Heating system: Infrared
  • Sample wt. =5gm
Fig: Sample dyeing machine
Function: To dye lab dip based on buyer requirements.

Machine No. 03

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Sample dyeing machine
  • Brand Name: Mathis LABOMAT
  • Origin: Switzerland
  • No.of pot: 23
  • Heating system: Infrared
  • Sample wt. =10gm
Fig: Sample dyeing machine
Function: To dye lab dip.

Machine No.04

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Rotawash machine:
  • Brand: SDL International
  • Model: M228
  • Origin: England
  • No. of pot: 8
Fig: Rota wash machine
Function: Treating the fabric sample with water to determine color fastness to washing.

Machine No.05


Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Sun test CPS+ machine
  • Brand: SDL International
  • Origin: England
  • Lamp capacity=500W
Fig: Sun test CPS+ machine
Function: Exposing the fabric sample to determine color fastness to light.

Machine No.06

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Oven dryer machine
  • Specification:
  • Brand: XIEMAN Rapid
  • Origin: China

Fig: Oven dryer machine.
Function: To dry fabric sample at required sample.

Machine No.07

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Washing machine
  • Brand: SIEMENS
  • Origin: Germany
  • Capacity: 5.5 kg
  • Speed: 1000rpm

Fig: Washing machine
Function: To wash the fabric sample at particular temperature.

Machine No.08

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Quick wash plus machine:
  • Specification:
  • Brand: SDLATLAS
  • Origin: UK
Fig: Quick wash plus washing machine
Function: To wash the fabric sample very quick manner with respect to normal washing.

Machine No.09

Specification of the machine
  • Name: Shaker machine
  • Specification:
  • Brand: Rapid
  • Origin: China
Fig: Shaker machine
Function: After dyeing soaping is done by this machine.

Machine No.10

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Robolab machine
Fig: Rob lab machine
Function: To prepare dye solution based on recipe amount for dyeing.

Machine No.11


Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Spectrophotometer machine
  • Model: 650
  • Origin: USA
Fig: Spectrophometer machine
Function: 
  • Recipe develop from standard sample
  • Check CMC value of Sample to evaluate it.
Name of the Machine used in Physical Lab:-

Tests done in Physical lab are:

  • Dimensional stability.
  1. Shrinkage
  2. Spirality
  3. Angular spacing
  • Pilling test
  • Rubbing Test
  • GSM
  • Color fastness to light
  • Color fastness to water
  • Color fastness to washing
  • Color fastness to perspiration ( Acid & Alkali Solution)
  • Color fastness to SALIVA
  • Color fastness Phenolic Uline
Machine No.01

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Pilling tester
  • Brand: SDL ATLAS
  • Origin: UK
Fig: Pilling tester machine
Function: Treating the fabric sample to create pile on the sample fabric surface.

Testing parameters:
  • Sample size: (12.5 x 12.5) cm,Method: ISO 12945-1:2001
  • Tube size: (14 x 2.6) cm,Revolution: 14400
  • Speed: 60 rpm,Test sample: 4 pcs
  • Course wise: 2 pcs and Wales wise: 2 pcs
Machine No.02

Specification of the machine:

Name: Crockmeter
Test parameters:
  • Sample size: Dyed fabric – (14 x5) cm
  • White Test Cloth - 5 cm ´ 5 cm
  • Method: ISO 105x2L: 2002
  • Revolution: 10cycle/10sec
  • Weight: 9N
Figure: Crockmeter
Function: Rubbing the fabric sample to measure color fastness properties.

Machine No.03

Specification of the machine:
  • Name: Overlock sewing machine
  • Brand: Juki
  • Origin: Japan
Fig: Over lock sewing machine.
Function: To sew the fabric for dimensional stability measurement test.

Measurement of Dimensional stability:
Dimensional stability: This is the test by which dimensional stability of fabric (i.e.: shrinkage & spirality) are measured. For this test, fabric has to be washed per care label code.

Test specimen & Equipment:
  • Sample size: outside = (50x50) cm and Inside = (35x35) cm
  • Method: ISO 6330: 2001 2A/5A
  • Equipment used: washing machine (Rota wash)
  • Washing at 400C X 41’, As per care label code.
Procedure:
  • Conditioning: Put the sample in table for 4 hrs for conditioning before starting test.
  • Cut the sample 50x50 cm & benchmark should be 35x35 cm.
  • Stitch the sample (3 sides) by over lock sewing machine.
  • Put sample in washing machine and run according to buyer’s choice.
Shrinkage calculation:
                                                31.5 + 31 + 30.8
After test: Inside measurement= ........................... = 31.1cm
                                                          3

                   Before wash - After wash 
Shrinkage = ........................................... X 100%
                            Before wash
    35 - 31.5
= ................ X 100 =11.14 %
         35
Figure: Measuring template
Spirality Calculation:

Figure: Spirality measurement dimension
Total distance = 47 cm.
Average spiral distance = (2+3)/2 = 2.5 cm
                  Average spiral distance
Spirality = ..................................... x 100% = (2.5×100)/47 = 5.32 %
                       Total distance

Conclusion: 
The dyeing lab machineries are varied from factory to factory. The Devine Fabrics dyeing lab is well equipped with different machineries along with necessary chemicals by which various types of lab dip can be developed and a number of tests are done in the physical lab with assured quality. All the equipments are sufficiently enough to meet the buyer requirements successfully. But all the tests cannot be conducted here.

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