Garment Washing: An Effective Process for Beautification of Garments (Part-7)

Garment Washing: An Effective Process for Beautification of Garments (Part-7)
Rahat Khan
Dept. of Apparel Manufacturing
Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology
Cell: +8801717781833
Email: rahat.info@gmail.com


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5.1.3 Color fastness to rubbing
This test is designed to determine the degree of color which may be transferred from the surface of a colored textile to a specific crock meter test cloth for rubbing (dry and wet state).

Equipment:
  1. Suitable crock meter
  2. Cotton rubbing cloth (desized, bleached without finish)
  3. Gray scale for staining
Crock meter
Fig-22: Crock meter
Test specimen:

If the textile to be tested is fabric:
Two pieces 14cmX5cm are required for dry rubbing & two for wet rubbing. One specimen of each pair shall have the long direction parallel to the warp yarn & the other parallel to the weft yarns.

Test procedure:

Dry rubbing test:
  • At first the sample of 14cm was cut for warp & 5cm for weft direction.
  • The test sample was locked on to the base of the crock meter so that it lies flat & tight for testing.
  • Then the length & width direction of the test specimen was kept parallel to the direction in which the rubbing is to be conducted
  • Then the spiral clip was used to set a 5cmX5cm of the white, cotton rubbing test cloth to the finger of the crock meter. The weave of the test cloth should be parallel to the direction of rubbing.
  • Then the covered finger was lowered on to the test sample.
  • Then the hand crank was turned & 10 complete cycle of the crank was completed
  • Then the white rubbing test cloth was removed from the finger
  • Then color transfer was evaluated by using grey scale for staining under standard lighting
Fig-23: After crocking test (dry sample)
Wet rubbing test:
  • At first the sample of 14cm was cut for warp & 5cm for weft direction.
  • The test sample was locked on to the base of the crock meter so that it lies flat & tight for testing.
  • Then the length & width direction of the test specimen was paralleled to the direction in which the rubbing is to be conducted
  • Then the spiral clip set was used, a 5cmX5cm square of the white, cotton rubbing test cloth to the finger of the crock meter. The weave of the test cloth should be parallel to the direction of rubbing.
  • Then the covered finger was lowered on to the test sample.
  • The hand crank was turned & 10 complete cycle of the crank was made.
  • Then the white rubbing test cloth was removed from the finger.
  • Then another sample of white cotton test cloth was wetted in the distilled water. The wet sample should wet with 100% take-up.
  • Then the cotton test cloth was dried in air
  • Then the rubbing test cloth was removed from the finger & color transfer was evaluated by using the grey scale for testing under standard light.
Fig-24: After crocking test (wet sample)
Evaluation:
The contrast between white rubbing cloth was compared with the staining grey scale & rated from 1-5 & changing in the tested specimen with changing grey scale.

Test report:
1. For dry rubbing test:
  • One rating (1-5) for warp direction
  • Another (1-5) for weft direction
2. Wet rubbing test
  • One rating (1-5) for warp direction
  • Another (1-5) for weft direction
Experimental data:

1. For denim fabric without wash:

Staining
No.
Length wise
Width wise
Dry
1
¾
¾
2
3
¾
3
4/5
4
Wet
4
¾
2
5
½
½
6
1
2
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

2. For enzyme wash:

Staining
No.
Length wise
Width wise
Dry
1
5
4/5
2
4/5
5
3
4/5
4/5
Wet
4
2
2/3
5
½
3
6
2/3
2
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

3. For light bleach:

Staining
No.
Length wise
Width wise
Dry
1
5
5
2
5
5
3
5
5
Wet
4
¾
¾
5
3
4
6
¾
4
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

4. For stone enzyme:

Staining
No.
Length wise
Width wise
Dry
1
4/5
4/5
2
5
4/5
3
4/5
5
Wet
4
2
½
5
2
2
6
2
2
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

5. For medium bleach:

Staining
No.
Length wise
Width wise
Dry
1
5
4/5
2
4/5
4/5
3
5
5
Wet
4
2/3
3
5
3
¾
6
2/3
3
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

6. For hand whicker:

Staining
No.
Length wise
Width wise
Dry
1
4/5
4/5
2
4/5
4/5
3
4/5
5
Wet
4
¾
3
5
3
2
6
2/3
2

Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

7. For pattern whicker:

Staining
No.
Length wise
Width wise
Dry
1
5
4/5
2
5
5
3
5
4/5
Wet
4
3
2
5
3
2/3
6
3/4
2
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

8. For potassium permanganate:

Staining
No.
Length wise
Width wise
Dry
1
4/5
3/5
2
4/5
3/5
3
4/5
3/5
Wet
4
3
2/3
5
2/3
2/3
6
3
2/3
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor


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Editor-in-Chief:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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