Garment Washing: An Effective Process for Beautification of Garments (Part-6)

Garment Washing: An Effective Process for Beautification of Garments (Part-6)
Rahat Khan
Dept. of Apparel Manufacturing
Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology
Cell: +8801717781833
Email: rahat.info@gmail.com

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Chapter 5
Test procedure


5.1 Test procedure:
The following are the names of the tests that have been done during the project work
5.1.1 Strength loss
Since a considerable amount of impurities (dirt, dust) are removed in washing process, the strength loss of fabrics can be a parameter .For garments washing for this test, the strength of the garments sample before and after washing is measured by any fabric strength tester.

Strength tester:
Titan strength tester
Fig-15: Titan strength tester
Working Procedure:
  • The end of the sample was placed on the upper clamp in the titan universal strength tester machine.
  • Then other part of the sample was placed on the bottom clamp in the titan universal strength tester machine.
  • By using motion indicator, both clamps was closed or fixed.
  • Then the machine was started and both the clamps were moving, upper clamp to the upper direction and bottom clamp to the lower direction.
  • After a certain time when the fabric could not bear the extension load the it breaks and machine stopped.
  • Finally, the result was shown in the monitor of the titan universal strength tester machine.
Fig-16: Sample (before strength test)
Fig-17: Sample (after strength test)
Experimental data:
Strength test by strength tester.

No.
Sample type
Sample direction
Maximum force
N
Extension
%
Time to break
S
1.
Basic
Warp
965
9.28
34.3
2.
Weft
1050
43.87
54.2
3.
Enzyme
Warp
795.14
27.40
49.2
4.
Weft
762.27
55.40
51.0
5.
Stone Enzyme
Warp
958.49
26.85
60.8
6.
Weft
1014.26
65.13
55.3
7.
Pattern whicker
Warp
768.9
32.8
42.3
8.
Weft
623.80
48.90
47.5
9.
Hand whicker
Warp
960.59
35.32
133.6
10.
Weft
919.47
56.81
49.0
11.
Medium bleach
Warp
901.08
29.24
65.8
12.
Weft
804.95
57.44
49.3
13.
Light bleach
Warp
701
19.60
76.8
14.
Weft
831
53.99
62.9
15.
Potassium permanganate with tinting
Warp
914.81
34.14
77.4
16.
Weft
846.25
62.35
59.5























 
5.1.2 Color fastness (washing)
Color Fastness to washing is one of the important dyeing properties to the consumers.

There is a variety of testing procedure to some extent, these have arisen:
  • Washing condition vary from one country to another
  • The method depends on the basis of the material used.
Apparatus & Material:
  • Wash-wheel with a thermostatically controlled water bath & rotating speed of 40±2 rpm.
  • Stainless steel container
  • Stainless steel bowl
  • Multi-Fiber fabric
  1. Wool
  2. Acrylic
  3. Polyester
  4. Nylon
  5. Cotton
  6. Acetate.
  • Sewing machine
  • Dryer
  • ISO type grey scale for changing
  • ISO type grey scale for staining
Fig-18: Gyrowash
Reagents:
  • Detergent (without optical brightener)
  • Sodium Carbonate
  • Distilled water
Test specimen:
If the textile to be tested is fabric: cut out a specimen of 10cmX 4cm & make sure all color is included in it. Sew it along all four edges with the same size of multi fiber fabric.

Recipe:
  • Detergent : 5gm/L
  • M:L :1:5
  • Soda :2gm
  • Time :30min
  • Temperature :600c
Fig-19: Sample (After test)
Fig-20: Sample (After test)
Fig-21: Multi fiber strip
Test procedure (based on ISO: 103/5):
  • 5gm detergent was Dissolved in to 1 liter of water
  • 2gm sodium carbonate Dissolved in to 1 liter of water
  • The machine temperature was Raised to 600c
  • The specimen was put in to the stainless steel container
  • The stainless steel container with specimen was put in to the machine
  • The machine was kept running for 30 min
  • Excess water was Extracted from specimen by squeezing
  • The specimen was dried with hand dryer
Evaluation:
The contrast between white rubbing cloth was Compared with the staining grey scale & rated from 1-5 & changing in the tested specimen with changing grey scale.

Experimental data for washing fastness:

No.
Name
Grading for color fastness
1.
Denim fabric without wash
4/5
2.
Super bleach wash
5
3.
Medium bleach wash
4/5
4.
Stone enzyme
5
5.
Enzyme wash
5
6.
Hand whicker
4/5
7.
Pattern whicker
4/5
8.
Potassium permanganate
1/2
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

Grading for staining
No.
Name
Acetate
Cotton
Nylon
Polyester
Acrylic
Wool
1.
Denim fabric without wash
1
4
½
4
4/5
¾
2.
Super bleach wash
½
½
2
4/5
5
4
3.
Medium bleach wash
½
4/5
2/3
4/5
5
¾
4.
Stone enzyme wash
½
4/5
2
4/5
4/5
4/5
5.
Enzyme wash
2/3
4/5
2
4/5
4/5
4
6.
Hand brush
½
4/5
2
4/5
4/5
4/5
7.
Machine brush
½
4/5
2
4/5
5
5
8.
Potassium permanganate
3
4/5
4
¾
1
4
Average grade/ range of testing: 1-5 grades
Interpretation of grade: (5) Excellent, (4) Good, (3) Fair, (2) Poor, (1) Very poor

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