Garment Washing: An Effective Process for Beautification of Garments (Part-1)

Garment Washing: An Effective Process for Beautification of Garments (Part-1)
Rahat Khan
Dept. of Apparel Manufacturing
Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology
Cell: +8801717781833

1.1 Introduction
Garments industry is the fastest growing and competitive sector in Bangladesh. It is also challenging as well. Bangladesh earns 76 percent of total foreign currency from this sector by exporting RMG. Washing is a new and important technique in garments trade. That is why the study of washing technology does deserve well practical practice. So our university provides us a project work on garments washing. We have completed our project work in HAMS WASHING & DYEING LTD and some part in our lab.

1.2 Objectives:
  1. The main object of garments washing is to know the process of washing, such as, Stone, Enzyme, Acid and Bleach wash.
  2. Analyze the effect of different washing, and compare which washing is more preferable for garments washing.
  3. To analyze the use of different chemical on garments washing and compare the effect of chemical on garments.
  4. To create new fashion like different types of fading effect in garments.
  5. To develop soft feeling effect on the garments by using softener and create new outlook.

Chapter 2
Literature review

2.1 Garments washing:
It is a technology by which outlook, comfort ability & fashion of garments is changed or modified & given old garment effect. Various types of chemicals & materials may be needed to do the specific wash.

2.2 Types of garment washing:
  1. Normal wash
  2. Bleach wash
  3. Stone wash
  4. Acid wash
  5. Enzyme wash
  6. Caustic wash
  7. Super white wash
  8. Wash & over dyeing(dirty washing)
2.2.1 Normal wash:
Normal wash is used to remove size material, adhering dyes, and any dart or oil spot of the garments. It is also used to develop the wash look of garments and to improve the soft feeling of garments. Detergent is used in normal wash. We get soft feeling effect through normal wash.

2.2.2 Bleach wash:
Fading effect is produced in the garments by partial bleaching action. Color garments are normally dyed with direct or reactive dyes. Due to the use of bleaching agent this wash is called bleach wash. Soda ash, antistant, powder enzyme, liquid enzyme and H2O2 is used in bleach wash. Through bleach wash fading effect can be done on garments.

2.2.3 Stone wash:
Stone wash is done on garments made from denim and jeans fabric. Fading effect is produced in the garments in irregular pattern. Garments become comfortable during use after stone wash. Soda ash, antistant, powder enzyme, liquid enzyme and pneumic stone are used here. Through stone wash we can get soft feeling effect with fading of garments.
Fig: Pneumic stones
2.2.4Acid wash:
Garments made from heavy jeans & denim fabrics are washed by acid wash technique. Pneumic stone is used for washing. Soda ash, antistant, liquid enzyme, powder enzyme acetic acid and Pneumic stone are used in acid wash. Irregular spoty effect can be produced in the garments through acid wash. Pneumic stones are perforated stones produced by volcanic explosion. At first it is soft, but becomes cold, it seems to like the stones with rough surface. This type of stones floats on water.

The pneumic stones to be used during acid wash should be pre treated in the following chemical solution.

  • Water : 100 L
  • Potassium permanganate : 1.2 kg
  • Phosphoric acid : 300 ml
The solution was stirred in a stainless steel bowl.

The pneumic stones were soak in the stock solution for 2-3 min .Then the stones were dried in open air for 60 to 90 min.

Fig : Stone preparation                                           Fig: Prepared stone
2.2.5 Enzyme wash:
Indigo dyed warp yarn are sized with Starch together with soluble PVA to remove this size materials enzyme wash is used. In order to give the fabric a soft effect & to give the denim a stone wash look, with better nice blue and white contrast on the surface. Soda ash, antistant, powder enzyme, liquid enzyme are used during enzyme wash.

2.2.6 Caustic wash:
High density alkali medium is used in caustic wash which remove the protruding fiber from the fabric surface and also fade the color of the fabric. “Caustic” is a chemical with corrosive nature, or strong cleaning power especially for oil spot. In this process all the dirt fine particles of cotton seeds & all foreign materials are cleaned up.

2.2.7 Garments washes & garments over dyeing:

This type of wash is done on the garments after acid wash or stone wash. Normally, direct or reactive dyes are used for over dyeing. If direct dyes are used for over dyeing, at the end of dyeing color fixing agent is needed to fix the direct dyes. If reactive dyes are used for over dyeing, then staining of other garments during cleaning can be avoided. 
2.2.8 Super white wash:
During stone wash & bleach wash OBA is used in the final rinsing to make the white threads in the fabric whiter to create stronger contrast between blue & white on the surface of the fabric.

2.3 Machineries used in garments washing industry:

  1. Garments washing machine.
  2. Hydro extractor machine
  3. Drying machine(tumble dryer)
  4. Boiler
  5. Sample washing machine
  6. Sand blasting unit for sand blast washing
  7. Spray machine
  8. Whickering
  9. Grinding machine
  10. Heat chamber for making crease in denim garments 
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