Hydroentanglement Bonding Process for Production of Nonwoven Fabric (Part-7)

Hydro-entanglement Bonding Process for Production of Nonwoven Fabric (Part-7)
Eng Mohamed Elsharkawy
Dept. of Textile Engineering
Alexandria University
Alexandria, Egypt
Email: m.elsharkawy.tex@gmail.com

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5.3 Experimental methodology

In this part, we talk about the procedures followed in each experiment of mentioned tests.

5.3.1 Fabric thickness test
The experiment is done as following procedures:
  1. The fabric sample that is to be measured is kept on an anvil.
  2. The press foot is gently lowered on to the specimen.
  3. The reading is taken to get the thickness of the specimen.
  4. The flat circular indenter of the micrometer exerts the specified pressure on the fabric sample.
  5. The above procedure is repeated to obtain the values of thickness at least at 3 different locations.
  6. The mean value of all the readings of thickness determined to the nearest 0.01m is calculated and the result is the average thickness of the sample under test.
5.3.2 Fabric weight test
The procedures of test are as followed:
  1. Cut the fabric sample according to the template area. By this way we cut samples.
  2. Then these samples will be weighed by digital balance in grams.
  3. By this way we get the weight in gram per one square meter fabric.
  4. Now find out the average of these found weights.
5.3.3 Fabric tensile strength
The test procedures are as followed:
  1. Prepare the machine. Clamps should be set about 3 inches apart
  2. Select the force range of the testing machine for the break to occur between 10-90% of full scale force.
  3. Set the testing machine for a loading rate as specified.
  4. Mount the specimen in the clamps as straight as possible so that the same lengthwise yarns are gripped by both clamps
  5. If specimen clips in the jaws, or breaks at the edge or in the jaws or performs markedly below the average for the set of specimens, discard the result and take another specimen.

In machine direction                    In cross direction
Code (200)
In machine direction                       In cross direction
Code (400)
In machine direction           In cross direction
Code (600)
Fig 5.6: shape of tensile test samples

5.3.4 Tear strength test
The test is done according to the following procedures:
  • Secure the specimen in the clamp jaws with the slit edge of each tongue centered in such a manner that the originally adjacent cut edges of the tongues form a straight line joining the centers of the clamps and the two tongues present opposite faces of the fabric to the operator. 
  • Start the machine and record the tearing force on the recording device. The tearing force may increase to a simple maximum value, or may show several maxima and minima. 
  • After the crosshead has moved to produce of fabric tear, as indicated for the type fabric and tearing action observed. Stop the crosshead motion after a total tear or the fabric has torn completely, and return the crosshead to its starting position. 
  • Record if the tear occurs crosswise to the direction o f applied force. 
  • Remove the tested specimen and continue specimens testing.
Code (400)                               Code (200)                               Code (600)Figure (5.7): Shape of samples of tear test
5.3.5 Puncture strength (burst strength)
The experiment is done as followed:
  1. Place the sample in the ring clamp as flat as possible with no wrinkle or tension and tighten the clamp.
  2. Center the ball on the sample and set the assembly CBR machine.
  3. Operate the machine at top speed until the fabric is ruptured by the steel ball.
  4. Read and record the bursting forces and get the av
Code (200)                        Code (600)                 Code (400) Fig 5.8: Shape of samples of puncture test
5.3.6 Water permeability (water repellent)
The procedures of this test are:
  • Fasten the test specimen securely in the hoop so that the face of the test specimen will be exposed to the water flow. The surface of the specimen should be smooth and without wrinkles. Place the hoop on the stand of the tester with the specimen in such a position that center of the flow pattern coincides with the center of the hoop. 
  • Pour distilled water into the funnel of the tester and allow it to onto the test specimen for 25 to 30 seconds. Take the hoop by the bottom edge and tap the opposite edge firmly once against a solid object with the fabric facing the object. 
  • Repeat the procedure above for other 2 specimens. Record the reads and take the average value.
5.3.7 Apparent opening size (AOS)
The test is done as followed and these all procedures are done according to the standard:
  • Put the sample and fix it in the frame, then apply anti-static spray uniformly on the geo-textile surface. 
  • Secure the sample without wrinkle and must not be stretched. 
  • Prepare many sizes of sand beads to use in the test and start with the smallest diameter and apply it on the center of the sample. 
  • Place a cover and a pan, before shaking the frame with the sample for 10 min. 
  • Place the sand beads still on the surface and weigh them and weigh the beads passed through the sample. 
  • By determination of the weight of beads passed and still on the surface and comparing with the original weight of beads, we calculate the apparent opening size. Repeat the experiment with larger diameters of sand beads and get the average to have the final value.
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