Antimicrobial Finishing of Cotton Fabric with Aloe Barbadensis

ANTIMICROBIAL FINISHING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH ALOE BARBADENSIS
K.Senthil Kumar
Intertek India Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, India
Email: senthilkumar163@gmail.com






ABSTRACT
Biotechnology is a frontier area in the field of science & technology having significant commercial applications in healthcare, agriculture, Textile & service sectors. There is a good deal of demand for the fabrics having functional/specialty finishes in general antimicrobial finishes in particular to protect human being against microbes. The application of antimicrobial textile finishes includes a wide range of textile products for medical, technical and apparel sectors. Recent developments on Aloe Vera have opened up new avenues in this area of research.

In the present study, cotton fabric is treated with Aloe Vera extract at various concentrations. A new approach to make textiles antimicrobial is incorporating the active principle of aloe gel extract with fabric. Initially, plant extracts are screened by qualitative antimicrobial tests for the presence of active principles. The extracts are applied on fabrics by simple exhaustion. The finished fabric samples have been tested for activity as per the AATCC (Agar Diffusion) method.

INTRODUCTION

Aloe Barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) plant is found to be more useful to the humankind because of the medicinal properties it possess. It is cultivated in the regions like India, South Africa, America, Mexico and other parts of the world. The aloe plant being a cactus plant, is about 95 % water, with an average pH of 4.5. The remaining solid material contains over 75 different ingredients including vitamins, minerals, enzymes, sugars, anthraquinones or phenolic compounds, lignin, saponins, sterols, amino acids and salicylic acid. The bitter yellow juice derived from Aloe Vera leaves are used to make Aloe juice and it can also be used as laxative. Aloe Vera plants are well known for their medicinal and healing properties from centuries. It is extensively used for wound healings, psoriasis, skin injury and diabetes.

Experimental Plan
The experimental plan involves the
  1. Extraction of Aloe Vera gel
  2. Finishing of cotton fabric with Aloe gel
  3. Anti microbial testing by using Agar plate method
1.1 EXTRACTION PROCESS
Aloe Vera gel is extracted from the centre of the plant’s leaves, contains celluloid matter that gives it a semisolid consistency and makes it unsuitable for consumption unless it is purified. The process separates and removes aloine from the Aloe Vera gel. Aloine is a yellowish sap found in the plant’s leaves and it is an irritant and laxative substance. Sulphates are also extracted in the process because of the risk of allergic reactions to the substances. In the first instance each leaf is cleaned with water to remove the adhering dust, microbes, and insects if any. Then it is cleaned with water contains 5-10 ppm chlorine to assure that water is free from pathogen etc. The leaves are next cut transversally at the bottom.

1.1.1 EXTRACTION BY HAND

  • First, cut Aloe Vera leaf from the plant.
  • Washing the Aloe Vera leaf to remove the dirt.
  • Massaging the solid gel to Change into liquid gel using our hands.
  • Extracting the Aloe gel-using spoon from inner parts of the leaf.
1.1.2 EXTRACTION BY MACHINE
  • First, cut Aloe Vera leaf from the plant.
  • Washing the Aloe Vera leaf to remove the dirt.
  • Feeding the Aloe leaf in between the rollers.
  • Tightened the handle to decrease the gap between rollers for maximum extraction.
  • Rotating the handle to pass the leaves between the pressing rollers, this extracts the gel.
  • The extracted gel will be collected on the pan and then the gel will drop into the container through the out let.
2.1 MICROBIAL FINISHING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH ALOE GEL
The Aloe Vera finishing on cotton fabric in three different concentrations such as the ratio (aloe gel: water 60:40, 80:20 and 100%) are done in the first case 30 ml of aloe gel is used with 20 ml of water. In the second case about 40 ml of aloe gel is mixed with 10 ml of water In the third case about 50 ml of aloe gel is used in each case two samples are used and it is coated by using padding mangle and it is finally dried.

3.1 DETERMINATION OF ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY BY USING AGAR PLATE METHOD

PROCEDURE
  1. First wash 9 petri plates clearly and dry it.
  2. Take 100ml of distilled water in a conical flask and add 3.8g of muller hinton agar and about 1g of agar-agar.
  3. And prepare cotton beads with the help of broom stick.
  4. Closely tight the conical flask with the help of cotton plug.
  5. With the help of the pressure cooker the petri plates, conical flask are sterilized to kill any micro organisms present in it.
  6. And keeping it for half an hour in the cooker it is placed under UV light.
  7. The medium present in the conical flask is poured equally in the petri plates.
  8. Out of 9 plates , 3 plates for 60:40 for treated fabric , 3 plates for 80:20 treated fabric and 3 plates for 100% treated fabric.
  9. After the medium becomes solid the stephello caccus bacteria is applied on the surface of the medium.
  10. From the first, three plates for 60:40% (one plate with only gel, second for treated fabric and gel , third is for treated fabric).
  11. The second, three plates for 80:20% (one plate with only gel, second for treated fabric and gel , third is for treated fabric).
  12. The third, three plates for 100% (one plate with only gel, second for treated fabric and gel, third is for treated fabric).
  13. It is allowed for 24 hrs and the inhibition zone is measured.
1. INHIBITION ZONE FOR 60:40% TREATED FABRICS
60:40% TREATED FABRICS
2. INHIBITION ZONE FOR 80:20% TREATED FABRICS
80:20% TREATED FABRICS
3. INHIBITION ZONE FOR 100% TREATED FABRICS
100% TREATED FABRICS
4. ANTI MICROBIAL TEST- EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
Microbial test

                     ANTI MICROBIAL TEST RESULTS




The Inhibition Zone Measured For  60:40% Treated Fabrics





S. No

Plate 1
Plate 2

Plate 3



Only Fabric
Fabric and gel

Only gel











1
Fabric =3.1 cm
Fabric=3.1 cm
Gel=1.2 cm





Gel=2.5 cm



















The Inhibition Zone Measured For  80:20% Treated Fabrics





S. No
Plate 1
Plate 2

Plate 3



Only Fabric
Fabric and gel

Only gel











1
Fabric =4.4 cm
Fabric=4.5 cm
Gel=2.9 cm





Gel=1.3 cm

























The Inhibition Zone Measured For  100% Treated Fabrics





S. No
Plate 1
Plate 2

Plate 3



Only Fabric
Fabric and gel

Only gel











1

Fabric =1.9 cm
Fabric=3.8 cm
Gel=1.9 cm





Gel=1.1 cm
























CONCLUSION
From the above test results of Agar Diffusion Test for antimicrobial effectiveness against standard test cultures viz., E-Coli (gram negative), the zone of bacterial inhibition is indicated by a halo around the specimen. It is apparent that the activity of aloe gel treated samples is high against E-coli. It is attributed that bacterial inhibition is due to the slow release of active substances from the fabric surface. The anthraquinone present in the aloe absorb the fatty acids, which make the fabric free from microbe profilation. Because Aloe Vera has six antiseptic agents (Anthraquinone, sulphates, lupeol, salicylic acid, cinnamic acid, urea nitrogen and phenol) which act as a team to provide antimicrobial activity thus eliminating many internal and external infections. From our lab result aloe gel treated fabric has very high inhibition against E-coli microorganism.

REFERENCES
  1. Klaus Schatz, “All Round Answer to Problem Microbes”, International Dyer, June 2001, p 17-19.
  2. Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM, Byrne ME. Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of aloe vera. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 79:559-562, 1989.
  3. Byrnec, Textile Institutes Dyeing and finishing Group conference, Nottingham, Nov.1995.
  4. Odes H.S., Madar Z. A double-blind trial of a celandin, aloevera and psyllium laxative preparation in adult patients with constipation. Digestion 49:65-71, 1991. 
Another article of this writer:
Factors Affecting the Rubbing Fastness of Textile Materials

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