Factors Influencing Productivity in Textile Industry

Productivity refers to the physical relation between the quality produced (output) and the quantity of resource used in the course of production (input)

Productivity (P) = Output (O) / Input (I)

Output implies production while input means land, labour, capital, management etc. Productivity measures the efficiency of the production system. Higher productivity means producing more from a given amount of input or producing a given amount with minimum level of inputs.
Productivity in Apparel Industry
In other words the more the output from one worker or one machine (or a piece of equipment) per day per shift, the higher is the productivity. Higher productivity is not to be taken in sense of higher workloads or faster machines alone but it is always elimination of waste of all type of labor (time and skill) machine time, capital, and material management etc.

Productivity = Output per unit of input

Productivity and production are two different terms. Productivity is a relative term indicating the ratio between total output and the total inputs used therein on the other hand production is an absolute concept, which refers to the volume of output. The volume of production may increase but productivity may decline due to inefficient use of resource. Efficient use of input may increase productivity but the volume of production may not increase. Production refers to the end result of production system whereas productivity reflects its efficiency.

Factors Influencing Productivity:
Productivity is an economics term which refers to the ratio of product to what is required to produce the product in textile industry. There are many factors which can influence productivity in textile industry. Though there are both positive and negative influencing factors, it is more common to hear about and know those factors which adversely affect production.

Factors influencing productivity can be classified broadly into two categories: (A) controllable (or internal) factors and (B) un-controllable (or external) factors.

1. Product factor: In terms of productivity means the extent to which the product meets output requirements product is judged by its usefulness. The cost benefit factor of a product can be enhanced by increasing the benefit at the same cost or by reducing cost for the same benefit.

2. Plant and equipment: These play a prominent role in enhancing the productivity. The increased availability of the plant through proper maintenance and reduction of idle time increases the productivity. Productivity can be increased by paying proper attention to utilisation, age, modernisation, cost, investments etc.

3. Technology: Innovative and latest technology improves productivity to a greater extent. Automation and information technology helps to achieve improvements in material handling, storage, communication system and quality control. The various aspects of technology factors to be considered are:
  • Size and capacity of the plant,
  • Timely supply and quality of inputs,
  • Production planning and control,
  • Repairs and maintenance,
  • Waste reduction, and
  • Efficient material handling system.
4. Material and energy: Efforts to reduce materials and energy consumption brings about considerable improvement in productivity.
  • Selection of quality material and right material.
  • Control of wastage and scrap.
  • Effective stock control.
  • Development of sources of supply.
  • Optimum energy utilisation and energy savings.
5. Human factors: Productivity is basically dependent upon human competence and skill. Ability to work effectively is governed by various factors such as education, training, experience aptitude etc., of the employees. Motivation of employees will influence productivity.

6. Work methods: Improving the ways in which the work is done (methods) improves productivity, work study and industrial engineering techniques and training are the areas which improve the work methods, which in term enhances the productivity.

7. Management style: This influence the organizational design, communication in organization, policy and procedures. A flexible and dynamic management style is a better approach to achieve higher productivity.


1. Structural adjustments: Structural adjustments include both economic and social changes. Economic changes that influence significantly are:
  • Shift in employment from agriculture to manufacturing industry,
  • Import of technology, and
  • Industrial competitiveness.
Social changes such as women’s participation in the labour force, education, cultural values, attitudes are some of the factors that play a significant role in the improvement of productivity.

2. Natural resources: Manpower, land and raw materials are vital to the productivity improvement.

3. Government and infrastructure: Government policies and programmes are significant to productivity practices of government agencies, transport and communication power, fiscal policies (interest rates, taxes) influence productivity to the greater extent.

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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