Determination of Fabric Abrasion Resistance

Abrasion Resistance Test of Fabric
Mofizur Rahaman Akash
B.Sc in Textile Engineering
World University of Bangladesh
Cell: +88 01818766765

Introduction :
Abrasion is just one aspect of wear and is the rubbing away of the component fibres and yarns of the fabric. It is a series of repeated applications of stress; therefore a capacity to absorb punishment is required to the fibres. Inherent fibre properties such as work of rupture may give a high resistance to abrasion.

Objective :
To determine the abrasion resistance of the sample fabric.

Theory :
A number of important points require consideration before abrasion resistance tests are carried out. The choice of the method may be governed by the type of apparatus available, the precision demanded and so forth. Some of the more important points are condition of the specimen, choice of testing instrument, choice of abrasive motion, direction of abrasion, choice of abradant, backing the specimen, cleanliness of the specimen and instrument, tension on the specimen, pressure between abradant and specimen, end-point of the test etc. Now there are various abrasion resistance testing instruments available for example, the WIRA abrasion tester, the LIRA abrasion tester, the Taber abraser, the Shiefer machine, the Wyzenbeek abrasion tester, the Stoll universal wear tester, the LINRA wear tester, the BFT abrasion tester etc. The abrasion tester we used here is made by James H. Heal & Co. Ltd, Halifax, England. In this instrument abrasion surfaces wrapping by sand paper are used to abrade the fabric samples. A counter is used to count the no. of abrasion. This is an electrical tester.
Fig: Abrasion Tester
Apparatus :
  1. Abrasion Resistance Tester
  2. Scissor
  3. Electric Balance
  4. Brush
M/c Specification :
  • Name: Abrasion Tester
  • Manufacturer: James H. Heal & Co. Ltd
  • Halifax, England.
  • Model: Nu-Martindale 404
  • Sample: Canvas Fabric.
Atmospheric Status :
  • Testing Atmosphere: Relative Humidity - 65% 2% & Temperature - 200 20C.
  • Present Atmosphere: Relative Humidity - 67% & Temperature - 250.
Procedure :
  1. At first cut the fabric into 4 pieces according to the measurement of the instrument.
  2. Weigh these 4 pieces of fabric samples.
  3. Now place these samples in the instrument under a certain load as supplied in the instrument.
  4. Now start the machine and observe the counter of abrasion no.
  5. After an abrasion of 200 bring out the first sample and weigh it.
  6. After an abrasion of 300 bring out the second sample and weigh it.
  7. Similarly after abrasion of 400 and 500 bring out the third and fourth sample and take their weight.
  8. Now put the weights before and after abrasions in a table and find out their wear index.

Sample wt. before Abrasion (mg)
No. of Abrasion Cycle
Sample wt. after Abrasion (mg)
Wt. loss
Wear Index
Calculation :
Suppose for s/n 2, we got cycle = 300, wt. loss = 40 therefore,

                    No. of Cycle × Wt. loss
Wear Index =………………............

                       300 × 40

                  = 8

Result :
  • Wear Index for 200 cycle = 6
  • Wear Index for 300 cycle = 8
  • Wear Index for 400 cycle = 14 &
  • Wear Index for 500 cycle = 34.
Remark :
It is easily understood that the more is no. of abrasion cycle the more will be the wt. loss of fabric. That is when a fabric is used more it losses its weight more. Now depending on yarn quality, fabric design and above all end use this loss may be less or more, again may be quickly or lately. But indeed the fabrics will loss its weight and serviceability.
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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