Application of Ultrasonic in Textile Wet Processing (Part-1)

Application of Ultrasonic in Textile Wet Processing (Part-1)
Authors: Nadeem Ahmed, Mohammad Nadeem Shaikh,
Taimoor Mohammad Khan, Umair Ahmad Shaikh
College of Textile and Polymer Engineering, Pakistan







ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY

1.1 Introduction
Sound generated above the human hearing range (20 Hz to 20 kHz) is called ultrasound. Ultrasonic vibrations travel in the form of a wave, similar to the way light travels. However, unlike light waves, which can travel in a vacuum (empty space); ultrasound requires an elastic medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. However, the frequency range normally employed in ultrasonic nondestructive testing and thickness gagging is 100 kHz to 50 MHz. Although ultrasound behaves in a similar manner to audible sound, it has a much shorter wavelength. This means it can be reflected off very small surfaces such as defects inside materials. It is this property that makes ultrasound useful for nondestructive testing of materials.

The Acoustic Spectrum in below figure classifies sound into 3 ranges of frequencies. The Ultrasonic Range is classified further into 3 sub sections.
All the units are expressed in Cycles/sec or Hertz.
1.2 Wave Propagation and Particle Motion
The most common methods of ultrasonic examination utilize either longitudinal waves or shear waves. Other forms of sound propagation exist, including surface waves and Lamb waves.
  • The longitudinal wave is a compressional wave in which the particle motion is in the same direction as the propagation of the wave.
  • The shear wave is a wave motion in which the particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of the propagation.
  • Surface (Rayleigh) waves have an elliptical particle motion and travel across the surface of a material. Their velocity is approximately 90% of the shear wave velocity of the material and their depth of penetration is approximately equal to one wavelength.
  • Plate (Lamb) waves have a complex vibration occurring in materials where thickness is less than the wavelength of ultrasound introduced into it.
Below figure provides an illustration of the particle motion versus the direction of wave propagation for longitudinal waves and shear waves.

1.3 Ultrasound Technique
Ultrasonics represents a special branch of general acoustics, the science of mechanical oscillations of solids, liquids and gaseous media. With reference to the properties of the human ear, high frequency inaudible oscillations are defined as ultrasonic or supersonic. In other words, while the normal range of human hearing is between 20 Hz and 20 kHz, ultrasonic frequencies lie between 20 kHz and 500 MHz.

1.4 Ultrasonic Behavior
Expressed in physical terms, sound is produced by mechanical oscillation of elastic media. The occurrence of sound presupposes the existence of material; it can present itself in solid, liquid and/or gaseous bodies. Airborne sound is the phenomenon most frequently met during our daily life. It can be directly initiated by excitation of solid bodies, which begin to oscillate and in turn cause the ambient air to vibrate. If the airborne vibrations reach the ear, they are perceived as sound. Air particles being excited to vibrate will in turn excite the adjacent particles, etc., thus causing a periodic series of high pressure and low pressure regions, called condensation and rarefactions, traveling through air in the form of waves.

1.5 Ultrasonic Phenomenon in Liquid Medium
Ultrasonic cavitations are defined as the growth and collapse of bubbles in liquids, and can be induced under a variety of physical conditions in water, organic solvents, and biological systems. In laboratory systems, bubble clouds are induced by ultrasonic irradiation.

Acoustic cavitations are induced by ultrasonic waves, which impose a sinusoidal pressure variation on the transmitting medium, alternately compressing the liquid molecules or pulling them apart by overcoming intermolecular forces. At an ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz, the liquid will undergo 2 x 104 compression and rarefaction cycles each second. Microscopic bubbles grow in size during the “rarefaction” half-cycle of the sound wave, and collapse violently during the compression half-cycle. The bubbles occur in clouds within the solution, although the lifetime of a single bubble is on the order of microseconds and its radius is on the order of micrometers.

1.6 Ultrasonic Washing Process
The use of ultrasonic energy for washing textiles has been tried several times without achieving practical development. In fact, the flexibility of the fibers makes the cavitations to produce small erosion effect and the reticulate structure of the fabric favors the formation of air bubble layers which obstruct wave penetration. It was found out that by diminishing the amount of dissolved air in the wash liquor the application of ultrasonic energy improved wash results in comparison to conventional methods. Nevertheless, practical requirements hindered the commercial development of the ultrasonic washing system. Specifically, the requirements of high water level and small wash load needed to ensure efficiency and homogeneity in the wash performance. To overcome these problems for industrial applications, a new process was developed in which textiles are exposed to the ultrasonic field in a flat format and within a thin layer of liquid. The textile items are transported in a continuous way passing them underneath the radiators of specially designed power ultrasonic transducers. A series of devices select and adjust different parameters of the process.
Power Ultrasonics Group, Instituto de Acustica
The new washing procedure is based on the application of the ultrasonic energy to the textiles to be washed by means of special vibrating plate radiators that are in direct contact or very close to them. The textiles are submerged in a shallow layer of liquid and conveyed in a flat format through the ultrasonic radiator by means of a roller-type system. The plate radiator is designed to vibrate with one of its simpler flexural vibration modes to avoid as much as possible great differences in the vibration amplitudes.

The cleaning effect is produced by the intense cavitations field generated by the plate radiator in the thin layer of liquid. Such liquid layer is very favorable to produce high cavitations effect and is very convenient for the low consumption of washing liquor required. The homogeneity in the washing effect is achieved by moving the fabrics along the plate surface in such a way that all parts of them are exposed during the same time to the areas of intense acoustic field. The high intensity radiation directed over the surface of the textiles help to remove the big bubbles by the action of the radiation force and the requirement of degassing the liquid is not necessary in this process.

The ultrasonic washing process is essentially mechanical, by ultrasonic vibration and cavitations, via a transducer at 20-40 kHz in contact or very near to the textile. It has the following main advantages with respect to a conventional washing process
  • Deeper and quicker cleaning effect
  • Low energy consumption
  • Reduced water expense.
  • Reduced detergent and other accessories expense.
  • It does not damage the fabric.

1.7 Ultrasonic Machine
High-power ultrasonic dyeing unit for aqueous solutions was used for all the experiments conducted. The technical details of the ultrasonic equipment are given as under;
Ultrasonic Machine
1.7.1 Features
  • built-in heating 30 - 80 oC
  • 280 W thermostatically adjustable
  • Tank: stainless steel AISI 316 Ti
  • Outlet: ball valve G ¼, right side
  • Housing: stainless steel AISI 304 drip-proof
  • Protection grade: IP 32
  • Handles: on sides
  • Timer: 1 - 15 min and ∞
1.7.2 Technical data
  • Transducers: 3 PZT large area transducers
  • HF generator: overload protected, constant power
  • Operating mode: double half-wave
  • Frequency: 35 kHz automatic frequency control
  • Ultrasonic peak output: 720 W
  • HF power: 180 Weff
  • Current consumption 230 V: 2.0 A
                                              115 V: 4.0 A
  • Mains connection: 230 V~ 50/60 Hz or
                                          115 V~ 50/60 Hz
  • Leakage current: < 0.5 mA
  • Fixed power cable, 2 m
1.8 AIMS OF THE PROJECT:
The main cynosure of this project is as under;
  • Color yield of different classes of Reactive dyes with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Effect of time variation on Reactive dyeing.
  • Effect of temperature variation on Reactive dyeing.
  • Effect of chemical concentration variation on Reactive dyeing.
  • Effect of dye concentration variation on Reactive dyeing.
  • Effect of direct exposure of ultrasound.
  • Effect of ultrasonic energy during batching period.
  • Effect of ultrasound on knitted fabric dyed with Reactive dyestuff.
  • Color yield of different processes of VAT dyestuff with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Color yield of Sulphur dyestuff with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Color yield of Acid dyestuff on woolen yarns and silk fabric with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Color yield of different classes of Disperse dyestuff with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Color yield of Cationic or Basic dyestuff on acrylic fabric with and without ultrasonic energy.
  • Effect of ultrasonic energy on textile washing.
  • Machine modification
CLASS OF DYESTUFF

2.1 REACTIVE DYES

2.1.1 Reactive K Type dyes
Reactive K type dyes, which are relatively more reactive dyes, were dyed on cotton fabrics with and without ultrasound energy, under varying different dyeing attributes.

2.1.1.1 Effect of Dyeing Time Variation
The basic purpose of this experiment was to check the percentage yield by varying the dyeing time.

2.1.1.1.1 Methodology

2.1.1.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the fixation time, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.1.1.2 Recipes Followed:..... (a)..... (b)
  • Drimarene K (%) 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 40 40
  • Soda Ash (%) 4.0 4.0
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz - 25 – 35 - 50 min
  • L:R 1:20 1:20
2.1.1.1.1.3 Procedure:
  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5 gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • After adding alkali to the baths, two samples were drawn out after 5 min and 15 min from the baths (a) and (b).
  • Then last sample was drawn at 30 min from both of the baths.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.
2.1.1.1.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye
Process
Control
Ultrasound
Drimarene K Blue
Exhaustion 20 min, Fixation 05 min
100 %
120.46%
Drimarene K Blue
Exhaustion 20 min, Fixation 15 min
100 %
113.38%
Drimarene K Blue
Exhaustion 20 min, Fixation 30 min
100 %
99.16%

2.1.1.1.1.5 Conclusions
  • It is concluded from the above results that lower fixation time gives higher color yields.
  • It appears that the dye already fixed on the fibers is removed on exposure to high energy of the ultrasound.
  • The dyes detached from the fibers are then converted into hydrolyzed dyes.


2.1.1.2 Effect of Dyeing Temperature Variation
The basic purpose of this experiment was to check the yield of dye by varying the dyeing temperature.

2.1.1.2.1 Methodology

2.1.1.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K ) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the temperature, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: ....(a).... (b)
  • Drimarene K Turquoise (%) 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 40 40
  • Soda Ash (%) 3.5 3.5
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) - 60 min
  • Temperature (oC) 60 40
  • L:R 1:20 1:20
2.1.1.2.1.3 Procedure:
  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 40 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5 gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in beakers (a) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 20 mins while beaker (b) was stirred for 20 mins at 40 0C.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Dyeing was continued for 30 mins at respective temperature.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method. 
2.1.1.2.1.4 Results:
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;


Name of dye
Control
Ultrasound
Drimarene K Turquoise
100 %
103.81 %

2.1.1.2.1.5 Conclusions
  • In spite of the low temperature, the color yield is higher on dyeing with ultrasound. The result however, is not significant. 


2.1.1.3 Effect of Chemical Variation
Assuming that the ultrasound energy may reduce the consumption of chemicals and auxiliaries in the dyeing process of textile substrates, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.1.3.1 Methodology

2.1.1.3.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), by varying the quantities of different chemicals used on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.3.1.2 CONTROL BATHS (a)
Recipes Followed: Bath I ...Bath II.... Bath III ....Bath IV
  • Drimarene K (%) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 40 40 20 30
  • Soda Ash (%) 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0
  • L:R 1:20 1:20 1:20 1:20
ULTRASONIC BATHS (b)

Bath I ......Bath II...........Bath III ......Bath IV
  • Drimarene K (%) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 40 40 20 30
  • Soda Ash (%) 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) 60 60 60 60
  • L:R 1:20 1:20 1:20 1:20
2.1.1.3.1.3 Procedure:
  • All the above mentioned control baths (a) were set in standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while ultrasonic baths (b) were set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • •Then 5 ml dye was poured in all beakers (a) and (b), after that 5 gm fabric was added in all of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 30 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in all the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.
2.1.1.3.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye
% of Soda Ash
% Dye uptake
Reactive K Blue
50
91.94%
Reactive K Blue
75
107.20%



Name of dye
% of Salt
% Dye uptake
Reactive K Blue
50
94.18 %
Reactive K Blue
75
80.25 %

2.1.1.3.1.5 Conclusions:
  • Results clear that even low quantity of alkali, ultrasonic sample still have darker shade when compared with the control sample. This could be due to diffusion of dye particle in to the fiber was escalated by he ultrasonic waves.
  • While when salt quantities were varied, ultrasonic samples were lighter than the control samples, both the ultrasonic samples tend to come close with control samples.


2.1.1.4 Effect of Shade Variation
Keeping in view that ultrasound energy escalates the penetration of dyestuff into the core of textile substrates, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.1.4.1 Methodology

2.1.1.4.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K ) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) on 100% Cotton plain weave by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.4.1.2 Recipes Followed: ........(a) .......(b)
  • Drimarene K (%) 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 40 40
  • Soda Ash (%) 4.0 4.0
  • Ultrasound Energy (35 kHz) - 60 min
  • L:R 1:20 1:20
2.1.1.4.1.3 Procedure:
  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5 gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 30 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.
2.1.1.4.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye
Control
Ultrasound
Reactive K Red
100 %
96.62%
Reactive K Violet
100 %
97.34%
Reactive K Turquoise
100 %
119.10%

2.1.1.4.1.5 Conclusions:
  • It is concluded from the above results that the phenomenon of ultrasound as a mechanical catalyst during the dyeing with K type dyes of Reactive group didn’t showed any positive sign except for Turquoise dyestuff, further it was inferred that the ultrasound energy doesn’t enhance the dyeing process of highly substantive reactive dyes (like K type).
  • In the case of Turquoise dyestuff, it’s molecule is considerably large than the other shades of the same K class dyes so ultrasound actually speeds up the process of penetration of large dyestuff molecules into the swelled structure of the fiber core.


2.1.1.5 Effect of Direct Exposure
With a view that processes which is exposed directly to the ultrasonic waves will benefit more, rather than carrying out in any ultrasonic conductive bath (like steel, metal or glass beakers). An experiment was carried out to verify the validation of above mentioned idea in which all parameters and process variables were kept constant of both control and ultrasonic baths.

2.1.1.5.1 Methodology

2.1.1.5.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes K (Drimarene K) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.1.5.1.2 Recipes Followed: ......(a) .......(b)
  • Drimarene K (%) 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 40 40
  • Soda Ash (%) 3.5 3.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz - 60 min
  • L:R 1:20 1:20
2.1.1.5.1.3 Procedure:
  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, and then stirred about 10 mins, while ultrasonic dye bath (b) was set at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) along with 5 gm of fabric, after that 50 ml dye was poured into ultrasonic dye bath (b) along with 50 gm fabrics.
  • Liquor in both the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 30 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • After adding alkali to the baths, stirring was continuously done for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with below mentioned steps.
2.1.1.5.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) conducted on data color;

Name of dye
Control
Ultrasound
Reactive K Blue
100 %
94.73%

2.1.1.5.1.5 Conclusions
  • Results shows no positive signs, as the strength of the ultrasonic dyed sample was less than the control one.

2.1.2 Reactive Cl Type dyes
Reactive Cl type dyes which are relatively less reactive dyes than the K type dyes were compared with and without ultrasound experiments, varying time variation, shade variation and chemicals variations.

2.1.2.1 Effect of Dyeing Time Variation
The purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic waves on textile substrate which ultimately reduces the dyeing time.

2.1.2.1.1 Methodology

2.1.2.1.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the fixation time, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.1.1.2 Recipes Followed: .........(a) ......(b)
  • Drimarene Cl Blue (%) 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 40 40
  • Soda Ash (g/l) 10 10
  • Caustic Soda 36 oBe’ (ml/l) 0.5 0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz - 40 – 45 - 60 min
  • Temperature (oC) 60 60
  • L:R 1:20 1:20
2.1.2.1.1.3 Procedure:
  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5 gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • After adding alkali to the baths, two samples were drawn out after 10 min and 15 min from the baths (a) and (b).
  • Then last sample was drawn at 30 min from both of the baths.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.
2.1.2.1.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color:

Name of dye
Process
Control
Ultrasound
Drimarene Cl Blue
Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 10 min
100 %
88.25 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 15 min
100 %
106.77 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
Exhaustion 30 min & Fixation 30 min
100 %
108.01 %

2.1.2.1.1.5 Conclusions
  • Results shows that Reactive Cl dyeing when exposed to ultrasonic waves dyed deeper even giving half of the fixation time, thus saving the dyeing time.
2.1.2.2 Effect of Shade Variation
Keeping in a view that ultrasound energy escalates the penetration of dyestuff into the core of textile substrates, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.2.2.1 Methodology

2.1.2.2.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a) and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) on 100% Cotton plain weave by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.2.1.2 Recipes Followed: ....(a)...... (b)
  • Drimarene Cl (%) 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 60 60
  • Soda Ash (%) 3.5 3.5
  • Caustic Soda 36 oBe’ (ml/l) 0.5 0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz - 60 min
  • Temperature (oC) 60 60
  • L:R 1:20 1:20
2.1.2.2.1.3 Procedure:
  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5 gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 30 mins.
  • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.
2.1.2.2.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye
Control
Ultrasound
Reactive Cl Red
100 %
96.62%
Reactive Cl Blue
100 %
97.34%
Reactive Cl Yellow
100 %
119.10%

2.1.2.2.1.5 Conclusions
Reactive Cl dyes when dyed with the exposure of ultrasonic waves didn’t show any positive sign except the Yellow dyestuff.
2.1.2.3 Effect of Dyeing Temperature Variation
Keeping in a view that ultrasonic waves reduces the consumption of energy; following . experiment was carried out;

2.1.2.3.1 Methodology

2.1.2.3.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a) and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), by varying the temperature on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.3.1.2 Recipes Followed: ........(a)........ (b)
  • Drimarene Cl Blue (%) 1.0 1.0
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 60 60
  • Soda Ash (%) 3.5 3.5
  • Caustic Soda 36 oBe’ (ml/l) 0.5 0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz - 60 min
  • Temperature (oC) 60 40
  • L:R 1:20 1:20
2.1.2.3.1.3 Procedure:
  • •Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent,then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 40 oCwith salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • •Then 5 ml dye was poured in beakers (a) and (b), after that 5 gm fabric was added toboth of the beakers.
  • •Liquor in beakers (a) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 20 mins while beaker (b) was stirred for 20 mins at 40 0C.
  • • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash) was added in the beakers (a) and (b).
  • • Dyeing was continued for 30 mins at respective temperature.
  • • At last the liquor of both the beakers was drained and the sample was washed with standard method.
2. 1.2.3.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye
Control
Ultrasound
Reactive Cl Blue
                  100 %
116.72 %

2.1.2.3.1.5 Conclusions
  • •In spite of the low temperature, the color yield is higher on dyeing with ultrasound. It shows that energy can be saved when dyeing with ultrasonic waves exposure.

2.1.2.4 Pad-Batch Process
Although conventional Pad-Batch process consumes a lot of time (dyestuff manufacturers recommends from 12 to 24 hours depending upon the shade depth) for a single batch. Keeping in a view that ultrasound energy consumes less time for batching, following experiment was carried out;

2.1.2.4.1 Methodology

2.1.2.4.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a) and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b), by varying the batching time on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Pad-Batch Process.

2.1.2.4.1.2 Padding Liquor:

  • Drimarene Cl (g/l) 9.0
  • Sodium Silicate 48 oBe’ (g/l) 65
  • Caustic Soda 36 oBe’ (ml/l) 15
  • Padding Pressure (bar) 2.0
2.1.2.4.1.3 Procedure:
  • First, a large piece of fabric was padded with the above mentioned padding liquor.
  • Then the previously padded fabric was cut into fifteen strips.
  • All the strips were wrapped on glass tube; the wrapped fabric was covered with plastic sheet.
  • Nine samples were labeled as control and were padded at normal condition for following periods; 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr, 5 hr, 6 hr and 24 hrs.
  • Similarly, six samples were labeled as ultrasound and were padded in ultrasonic bath for following periods; 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr.
  • After that padded samples were washed with standard method.
2.1.2.4.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;
Name of dye
Batching Time (Control)
Batching Time (Ultrasound)
Control
Ultrasound
Drimarene Cl Blue
15 min
15 min
100 %
117.05 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
30 min
30 min
100 %
113.95 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
1 hr
1 hr
100 %
324.27 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
2 hr
2 hr
100 %
239.00 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
3 hr
3 hr
100 %
258.48 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
4 hr
4 hr
100 %
237.01 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
5 hr
4 hr
100 %
221.38 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
6 hr
4 hr
100 %
99.95 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
24 hr
1 hr
100 %
142.42 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
24 hr
4 hr
100 %
179.53 %
 

2.1.2.4.1.5 Conclusions
Pad Batch experiments concluded with interesting results,
  • The percentage dye uptake of similar batching time when compared showed much high depth than the control samples.
  • When 24 hr of control sample was compared with 1 hr ultrasound sample, the percentage dye uptake is still significantly higher, and the shade was brighter than the control sample.
  • This concludes that with ultrasonic energy we can substantially reduce the batching time, which ultimately reduces processing time and cost.

2.1.2.5 Effect of Dye Concentration Variation
The purpose of this experiment was to check the effect of ultrasonic waves on reducing the consumption of dyestuff used for the dyeing of textile substrate with reactive Cl dyes;

2.1.2.5.1 Methodology

2.1.2.5.1.1 Experiment Title:
Comparative study of Reactive Dyes Cl (Drimarene Cl) between CONTROL PROCESS (a), and EXPOSURE OF ULTRASOUND (b) by varying the dye concentration, on 100% Cotton special weave (22 x 22 / 60 x 60) by Exhaust Process.

2.1.2.5.1.2 Recipes Followed: .......(a)....... (b) ......(c)
  • Drimarene Cl Blue (%) 1.0 0.5 0.75
  • Drimagen E2R (g/l) 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • Glauber’s salt (g/l) 60 60 60
  • Soda Ash (g/l) 3.5 3.5 3.5
  • Caustic Soda 36 oBe’ (ml/l) 0.5 0.5 0.5
  • Ultrasound Energy ~ 35 kHz - 60 min 60 min
  • Temperature (oC) 60 60 60
  • L:R 1:20 1:20 1:20
2.1.2.5.1.3 Procedure:
  • Beaker (a) was set in the standard dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins, while beaker (b) was set in ultrasonic dye bath at 60 oC with salt and leveling agent, then stirred about 10 mins.
  • Then 5 ml dye was poured in beaker (a) and in beaker (b & c) required amount of dye was poured, after that 5 gm fabric was added to both of the beakers.
  • Liquor in all the beakers (a) and (b) was continuously stirred at 60 oC for about 20 mins more under respective conditions.
  • After that required quantities of alkali (Soda Ash & Caustic Soda) was added in the beakers (a, b & c).
  • Dyeing was continued with constant stirring and sample was drawn after 30 min from all the baths.
  • At last the liquor of all the beakers was drained and the samples were washed with standard method.
2.1.2.5.1.4 Results
Following are the CIE color lab (CMC tests) results conducted on data color;

Name of dye
Process
Control
Ultrasound
Drimarene Cl Blue
Control 1.0 % & Ultrasound 0.5 %
100 %
70.98 %
Drimarene Cl Blue
Control 1.0 % & Ultrasound 0.75 %
100 %
84.20 %

2.1.5.5.1.5 Conclusions
  • Results show that even with low dye concentration of ultrasonic samples the percentage dye uptake are very near to the control percentage yield. 

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