Vegetable Dyes | Different Types of Vegetable Dye

 Different Types of Vegetable Dye

Rakibul Islam Khan
Department of Textile Engineering
Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology (AUST)

Vegetable Dyes
Potential dye plants include trees, shrubs and herbs, as well as mushrooms and lichens. The plant components used for dyeing are also very different. It can be the whole plant (e.g. weld), the leaves (e.g. woad), the roots (e.g. madder), the flowers (e.g. dyer’s chamomile), the fruits (e.g. common buckthorn), the bark (e.g. oaks), the semen shell (e.g. Persian nut) or, the skin (e.g. onion).

Henna (Lawsonia inermis)
Lawsonia inermis is commonly known as “henna”. It is also called mehndi in native language in subcontinent (Bangladesh, India and Pakistan). Henna is a well branched shrub or, small tree frequently cultivated in many tropical and warm temperature regions of Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Egypt, Sudan, Iran, Yemen and Kenya. Large-scale cultivation for the sake of leaves that yield dye confined to India, Egypt, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sudan. Powdered leaves of this plant (aqueous paste) are used as a cosmetic for staining hands and hairs. The picture of plant is given in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Henna Leaves
Unbroken henna leaves will not stain hand, hair or textile materials. Henna's colouring properties are due to lawsone, a burgundy organic compound that has an affinity for bonding with protein. Lawsone is primarily concentrated in the leaves, especially in the petioles of the leaf. The structure of the coloring component, Lawsone, is given in Figure 2.
Figure 3: Lawsone
Guava (Psidium guajava)
Guava (Psidium guajava) is a low evergreen tree or shrub 6 to 25 feet high, with wide-spreading branches and square, downy twigs, is a native of tropical America. Guava is a tropical and semi-tropical plant. It is well known for its edible fruit. Figure 3 shows guava fruit and its leaves. 
Figure 3: Guava
The leaves of guava contain many essential oils and so it is used for many purposes like producing anti-microbial finishes, providing anti-diarrheal action, having anti-inflammatory effect, etc. The leaves can also be used for dyeing textiles. Quercetin present in the guava leaves is the chemical that is responsible for having the coloring effect on textile material . The chemical structure of Quercetin is given in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Quercetin
Mango (Mangifera indica)
Mango (Mangifera indica) is one of the most popular of all tropical fruits. Mangoes belong to genus Mangifera, which consists of about 30 species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. It is native tropical Asian fruit and has been cultivated in the Indian subcontinent for over 4000 years and is now found naturalized in most tropical countries. The picture of mango tree is given in Figure 5. 
Figure 5: Mango
The chemical that is responsible for colour in the mango leaf is mangiferin. Figure 6 is the chemical structure of Mangoferin.
Figure 6: Mangiferin
Onion (Allium cepa)
The onion (Allium cepa) is also known as the bulb onion. Onions are often chopped and used as an ingredient in various hearty warm dishes. Onion tissue is frequently used in science education for demonstrating microscope usage. Onion skins can also be used as dyes. The picture of onion is given in Figure 7.
Figure 7: Onions
The dyestuff present in onion skin is called Pelargonidin (3,5,7,4 tetrahydroxyantocyanidol) . The structure of Pelargonidin is given in Figure 8.


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