### Textile Calculation | Different Formula of Textile Calculation

TEXTILE CALCULATIONS

Ramandeep Singh
B.Tech, Dept. of Textile Engineering
Giani Zail Singh Punjab Technical University Campus,
Bathinda, Punjab, India
Email: rmnsandhu3335@gmail.com

FIBER FINENESS, YARN COUNTS AND CONVERSIONS

Micronaire Value (Cotton): The unit is micrograms per inch. The average weight of one inch length of fibre, expressed in micrograms(0.000001 gram).

Denier (Man-Made Fibres): Weight in grams per 9000 meters of fibre.

Micron (Wool): Fineness is expressed as fibre diameter in microns(0.001mm)

Conversions:
• Denier = 0.354 x Micronaire value
• Micronaire value = 2.824 x Denier
YARN COUNTS
1. INDIRECT SYSTEM
2. DIRECT SYSTEM
INDIRECT SYSTEM
• English count (Ne)
• French count(Nf)
• Metric count(Nm)
• Worsted count
Metric system: Metric count(Nm) indicates the number of 1 kilometer(1000 meter) lengths per Kg.
• Nm = length in Km / weight in kg (or)
• Nm = length meter / weight in grams
DIRECT SYSTEM
• Tex count
• Denier
CONVERSION TABLE FOR YARN COUNTS

 Tex Den Nm Grains/yd Tex den/9 1000/Nm gr.yd   x 70.86 Ne 590.54/tex 5314.9/den Nm x .5905 8.33 / gr/yd Den tex  x  9 9000/Nm gr/yd  x 637.7 Nm 1000/tex 9000/den 14.1 / gr/yd Grains/yd tex / 70.86 den / 637.7 14.1/Nm
Where, Nm – metric count, Nec – cotton count

CONVERSION TABLE FOR WEIGHTS

 Ounce Grains Grams Kilograms Pounds Ounce 437.5 grains 28.350 grams Grains 0.03527 ounces 0.0648 grams Grams 0.03527 grains 15.432 grains 0.001 kgs Kilograms 35.274 ounces 15432 grains 1000 grams 2.2046 pounds Pounds 16.0 ounces 7000 grains 453.59 grams 0.4536 kgs

CONVERSION TABLE FOR LINEAR MEASURES

# Yard

Feet
Inches
Centimeter
Meter
Yard

3 feet
36 inches
91.44 cms
0.9144 meter
Feet
0.3333 yards

12 inches
30.48 cms
0.3048 meter
Inches
0.0278 yards
0.0833 feet

2.54 cms
0.254 meter
Centimeter
0.0109 yards
0.0328 feet
0.3937 inches

0.01meter
Meter
1.0936 yards
3.281 feet
39.37 inches
100 cms

CALCULATIONS
• Grams per meter = 0.5905 / Ne
• Grams per yard = 0.54 / Ne
• Tex = den x .11 = 1000/Nm = Mic/25.4
• Ne = Nm/1.693
• DRAFT = (feed weight in g/m) / (delivery weight in g/m)
• DRAFT = Tex (feed) / Tex(delivery)
• DRAFT = delivery roll surface speed / feed roll surface speed
• No of hanks delivered by m/c = (Length delivered in m/min) / 1.605
WINDING

1. Slub catcher settings :

a. Fixed Blade = Carded - (2.0 to 2.5) x diameter
Combed - (1.5 to 2.0) x diameter

b. Electronic yarn clearer = 3 cm x 3 diameter

Diameter in inch for Blended yarn   = 1/( 28 x count )
= 10 to 15% more settings

Number of objectionable thick faults removed by slub catcher
2.Yarn clearer efficiency=...........................................................................................x 100
Total objectionable thick faults present in yarn before winding

Total breaks during winding (at faults)
3. Knot factor =...............................................................................
No. of breaks due to objectionable yarn faults

Strength of spliced joint x 100
4. Retained splice strength = ...........................................................
Strength of parent yarn

5. Winding Tension = 0.1 x Single yarn strength in grams

4500 x Y
6. Expected efficiency E = ......................................................
S x N (12 + 98)

7. Winder’s workload (0.17 min/operation on conventional winding m/c) = 2300 operations per shift of 8 hours

Where,
• 1 creeling or 1 piecing = 1 operation
• 1 doffing = 2 operations
8. Winder’s workload on autoconer (0.08 min per operation) = 4800 operations/shift of 8 hours

Where,
• 1 bobbing feeding = 1 operation
• 1 doffing (manual) = 4.5 operation
Y = Length/Bobbin (metres)
B = Breaks per bobbin
S = Winding speed (metres/min)
C = English count

9. Production in Kgs / 8 Hrs = (0.2836 x L x Effy x Nd) / (Ne)
• L - delivery speed in m/min
• effy - efficiency
• Ne - english count
• Nd - No of delvieries
10. P =( L x 1.0936 x 60 x Effy ) / (Hank (Ne) x 36 x 840 x 2.2045)
• P - production in kgs / hr
• L - delivery speed in m/min
• effy- efficiency
• Ne - English count ( number of 840 yards in one pound)
• 840 - constant
• 2.2045- to convert from lbs to kilograms
WARPING

R x 100
1. Machine Efficiency E =.............................
R + S

R = Uninterrupted running time for 1,000 meters (in sec)

1000 x 60
= .................................................
Machine speed in mtr/min.

S = Total of time in seconds for which the machine is stopped for a production of 1,000 meters

B X N X T1    T2          T3
= R + ---------------- + ------ + ----------- + T4
400             L          L x C
• B = Ends breaks/400 ends/1,000 meters
• N = Number of ends
• L = Set length in 1,000 meters
• C = Beams per creel
Timing of activities in seconds are :
• T1 = To mend a break
• T2 = To change a beam
• T3 = To change a creel
• T4 = Miscellaneous Time loss/1,000 mtrs.
2. Production in metres per 8 hrs. (K) = 480 x mtrs/min x E/100 kgs.

3. Production in Kgs. per 8 hrs. = (K x N)/(1693 x English Count)

4. Warping Tension = 0.03 to 0.05 x Single thread strength

SIZING

Length in metre x 1.094 x Total ends
1. Warp weight (in kg.) = ……………………………………………x 100
840 x 2.204 x Warp count

Sized warp weight - Unsized warp weight
2. Size pick-up % =……………………………………………………… x 100
Un-sized warp weight

3. Weight of size = Warp Weight x Size pick up %

Sized warp length - Unsized warp length
4. Stretch % = …………………………………………………x 100
Un-sized warp length

Total-ends x Warp length in yards
5. Sized yarn count = ………………………………………………………
Sized warp weight (lbs) x 840

Wt. of sized yarn - Wt. of oven dried yarn
6. % of Moisture content= ………………………………………………… x 100
Wt. of sized yarn

7. % of Stretch =……………………………………………………… x 100

840,000 x D x C
8. % Droppings on loom = ……………………………. x 100
454 Y x N x P
D = Dropping in gms.
C = English Count
Y = Length woven (yds.)
N = Number of Ends
P = % size add on

9. Invisible Loss%

Amount of size material issued - Amount of size added on yarn
= ………………………………………………………….....................x 100
Amount of size issued

Steam, Consumption (Sizing M/c) = 2.0 kg/kg of sized yarn
(Cooker) = 0.3 kg/kg of liquor
(Sow box) = 0.2 kg/kg of yarn

No. of Cylinder x 1,000 x English count
10. Max. Speed of machine = ………………………………………………
(metres/min) Number of ends

Number of ends x 0.6
11. Wt. of warp in gms/mtr = …………………………
English count

WEAVING

1. Reed Count : It is calculated in stock port system.

EPI
Reed width = ………………………………
1 + Weft crimp %age

No. of dents in 2 inches is called Reed Count

2. Reed Width :
100 + Weft crimp %age
Reed width = Cloth width x ………………………………
100

3. Crimp % :
Warp length - Cloth length
Warp Crimp %age =…………………………………………. x 100
Cloth length

Weft length - Cloth length
Weft Crimp %age = ……………………………… x 100
Cloth length

EPI
4. Warp cover factor = ....................................
√Warp Count

PPI
5. Weft cover factor =…………………….
√Weft count

Wp.C.F. x Wt. C.F.
6. Cloth cover factor = Wp.C.F. + Wt.C.F. - ……………………………….
28

7. Maximum EPI for particular count :

a. For plain fabrics = 14 x Count

b. For drill fabrics = Count x 28 x 4/6

c. For satin fabric = Count x 28 x 5/7

Ends/repeat x 1 / yarn diameter
d. Other design = ………………………………………………………..
No. of intersections / repeat + ends/repeat

1
8. Yarn diameter = ……………………
28 x Count

Weave Density

1. Warp density = Ends/cm x Tex x K
= < 250

2. Filling density = Picks/cm x Tex x K
= < 350

(Warp density - 100) x F.D.- 100
3. Weave Density = 50 + ……………………………………………
(Weft density - 100) x F.D.- 100

4. Effective weave density = W.D. x K of loom width x K of Design = < 72

 Count Table
To change the count and number of thread/inch, keeping the same denseness of the fabric :

1. To change the EPI without altering the denseness :

EPI in given cloth x Warp count in expected cloth
EPI in Exp.Cloth =………………………………………………………………

√ Warp count in given cloth
2. To change the count without altering the denseness :

EPI in exp. cloth2
EPI in exp. cloth = …………………………………x Count in given cloth
EPI in given cloth

Warp requirement to weave a cloth :

Total ends x 1.0936 x 453.59 x crimp%
1. Warp weight in gms/mtrs. =…………..............................................x Wasteage%
840 x Count

2. Weft weight in gms/mtrs.

R.S. in inches x 453.59 x PPI
=…………………………………x Crimp % x Waste %
840 x Count

3. Cloth length in mtrs.with the given weft weight

Weft wt. in kgs. x Weft count x 1848 x 0.9144
=……………………………………………………….
PPI x R.S. in inches

For Silk and Polyester :

1. Warp weight in gms/mtrs.

Total ends x Count (Denier)
= ……………………………..............x Crimp% x Waste %age
9000

2. Weft weight in gms/mtrs.
RS in inches x PPI x Count (Denier)
= …………………………………........ x Crimp% x Wasteage%
9000

Allowance for count in Bleached and Dyed Fabric :
• Count becomes 4%
• Finer Dyed counts become max.6% Coarser
FABRIC PRODUCTION

Motor pulley diameter
1. Loom speed = Motor RPM x ………………………………….
Loom pulley diameter

Actual production
2. Loom Efficiency % = ------------------------------- x 100
Calculated production

Yarn weight - Dryed yarn weight
3. Moisture Regain % = ----------------------------------------------------- x 100
Dryed yarn weight

Yarn weight - dried yarn weight
4. Moisture Content % = ----------------------------------------------- x 100
Yarn weight

Total ends x Tape length in metre
5. Warp weight in Kg. = ------------------------------------------------------
1693.6 x Warp count

RS in centimetres x Coth length in metres x PPI
6. Weft weight in Kg. = -------------------------------------------------------------------
4301.14 x Weft count

EPI                    PPI
7. Cloth weight in GSM = ------------------ + -------------------- x 25.6
Warp count          Weft count

GSM (Grams per sq. metre)
8. Oz (Ounce) per sq.yard = --------------------------------------------
34

Material measurement :
For calculating of length of any rolled fabrics :

0.0655 (D - d) (D + d)
L = ---------------------------------
t

Where,
L = Length of material (feet)
t = Thickness of fabrics (inches)
D = Outside diameter (inches)
d = Inside diameter (inches)

Weight of yarn in a cloth :
The weight of cloth manufactured on loom depends upon the weight of yarns in the warp and weft : ends/inch, picks/inch and the weight of size on the warp.

Therefore, Cloth weight = Weight of warp + Weight of weft + Weight of size (All in lbs.)

Total No. of Ends x Tape length in yds.
Where as Weight of warp in lbs = -----------------------------------------------------
840 x Warp yarn count

Also Weight of weft in lbs.

Length of cloth (yds) x Picks/inch in cloth x Reed width (inch)
= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
840 x Weft yarn count

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