Productivity & Production Management of Wet Processing Industry
Department of Textile Engineering
Daffodil International University
Productivity may be defined as the ratio between output of wealth and input of resources of production. Output means the quantity produced and inputs are the various resources employed, e.g., land, building, machinery, materials and labor.
Productivity = Output / Input
Productivity refers to the efficiency of the production system. It is an indicator of how well the factors of production (land, capital, labor and energy) are utilized.
|Production in Wet Processing Industry|
Benefits From Increased Productivity:
Higher productivity results in higher volume of production and hence increased sales, lower cost and higher profit. It is beneficial to all concerns as stated below:
(a) Benefits to the management:
- More profit.
- Higher productivity ensures stability of the organization.
- Higher productivity and higher volume of sales provide opportunity for expansion of the concern and wide spread market.
- It provides overall prosperity and reputation of the organization.
- Higher wages .
- More wages permits better standard of living of workers.
- Better working conditions.
- Job security and satisfaction.
- More productivity ensures better quality of product.
- It also enables reduction in prices.
- More satisfaction to consumers.
- It provides greater national wealth.
- It increases per capita income.
- It helps expansion of international market with the help of standardizes and good quality products.
- It improves standard of living.
- It helps better utilization of resources of the nation
(a) Factors affecting national productivity
- Human resources
- Technology and capital investment
- Government regulation
- Product or system.
- Machinery and equipment
- The skill and effectiveness of the worker
- Production volume
- The general level of education
- Use of computers and other sophisticated equipment by employees
- Employees need to be motivated to be productive.
- Technology and capital investment
- New technology depends on R & D
- Every industry and services put new technology into use, they must invest in new machinery and equipment
- Computer aided design (CAD).
- An excessive amount of government regulation may have a detrimental effect on productivity.
- R&G is a vital contributor to improved product design.
- ‘Standardization’ of the product and the use of ‘group technology’ are other design factors that make possible greater productivity in the factory.
- ‘Value analysis’ can bring out many product design changes that improve productivity.
- Once the product is designed/redesigned, then how it is made offers the next opportunity for productivity improvement. The equipment used – machines, tools, conveyors, robots, layout – all are important.
- CNC machines
- Computer aided manufacturing (CAM)
- Skill and effectiveness of the workers:
- The trained and experienced worker can do the same job in a much shorter time and with far greater effectiveness than a new one.
- Even the well-trained employees must be motivated to be productive as well.
Assume that the volume of output is to be doubled, the number of direct workers would have to be doubled and a few indirect workers might also be needed. But there would probably not be a need for more engineers, research scientists, head quarters staff persons or other support personnel. So if the output is doubled, the productivity of these support people is in effect doubled.
The economic growth of a country depends on the national productivity. The national productivity will automatically increase if productivity of individual industrial and productive unit increases, we shall consider the factors that affect the productivity of an individual unit. They are as follows:
- Land and building
- Machinery and equipment
- Men (Labor)
It is the ratio of total output to the sum of all input factors. Thus a total Productivity reflects the joint impact of all the inputs in producing the output.
Overall productivity = Profit/ Capital involved
- Production management means planning, organising, directing and controlling of production activities.
- Production management deals with converting raw materials into finished goods or products. It brings together the 6M's i.e. men, money, machines, materials, methods and markets to satisfy the wants of the people
- Production management also deals with decision-making regarding the quality, quantity, cost, etc., of production. It applies management principles to production.
- Production management is a part of business management. It is also called "Production Function." Production management is slowly being replaced by operations management.
- The main objective of production management is to produce goods and services of the right quality, right quantity, at the right time and at minimum cost. It also tries to improve the efficiency. An efficient organisation can face competition effectively. Production management ensures full or optimum utilization of available production capacity.
- In another word "Production management deals with decision-making related to production processes so that the resulting goods or service is produced according to specification, in the amount and by the schedule demanded and at minimum cost.
- Process Plan
- Work Requirement
- Work Effort
Importance of Production Management in Wet Processing Industry:The importance of production management to the Industries:
1. Accomplishment of Industries objectives :
Production management helps the industries to achieve all its objectives. It produces products, which satisfy the customers' needs and wants. So, the firm will increase its sales. This will help it to achieve its objectives.
2. Reputation, Goodwill and Image :
Production management helps the industries to satisfy its customers. This increases the industries reputation, goodwill and image. A good image helps the industries to expand and grow.
3. Helps to introduce new products :
Production management helps to introduce new products in the market. It conducts Research and development (R&D). This helps the industries to develop newer and better quality products. These products are successful in the market because they give full satisfaction to the customers.
4. Supports other functional areas :
Production management supports other functional areas in an organisation, such as marketing, finance, and personnel. The marketing department will find it easier to sell good-quality products, and the finance department will get more funds due to increase in sales. It will also get more loans and share capital for expansion and modernisation. The personnel department will be able to manage the human resources effectively due to the better performance of the production department.
5. Helps to face competition :
Production management helps the industries to face competition in the market. This is because production management produces products of right quantity, right quality, right price and at the right time. These products are delivered to the customers as per their requirements.
6. Optimum utilisation of resources :
Production management facilitates optimum utilisation of resources such as manpower, machines, etc. So, the firm can meet its capacity utilisation objective. This will bring higher returns to the organization.
7. Minimises cost of production :
Production management helps to minimise the cost of production. It tries to maximise the output and minimize the inputs. This helps the firm to achieve its cost reduction and efficiency objective.
8. Expansion of the industries :
The Production management helps the firm to expand and grow. This is because it tries to improve quality and reduce costs. This helps the industries to earn higher profits. These profits help the firm to expand and grow.
Importance of Production Management to Customers and Society:
1. Higher standard of living :
Production management conducts continuous research and development (R&D). So they produce new and better varieties of products. People use these products and enjoy a higher standard of living.
2. Generates employment :
Production activities create many different job opportunities in the country, either directly or indirectly. Direct employment is generated in the production area, and indirect employment is generated in the supporting areas such as marketing, finance, customer support, etc.
3. Improves quality and reduces cost :
Production management improves the quality of the products because of research and development. Because of large-scale production, there are economies of large scale. This brings down the cost of production. So, consumer prices also reduce.
4. Spread effect :
Because of production, other sectors also expand. Companies making spare parts will expand. The service sector such as banking, transport, communication, insurance, BPO, etc. also expand. This spread effect offers more job opportunities and boosts economy.
5. Creates utility :
Production creates Form Utility. Consumers can get form utility in the shape, size and designs of the product. Production also creates time utility, because goods are available whenever consumers need it.
6. Boosts economy :
Production management ensures optimum utilisation of resources and effective production of goods and services. This leads to speedy economic growth and well-being of the nation.