Properties Comparison of Different Dyes


Dyes Comparison Table

Sikander Anwer
Department in Textile Engineering
University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Cell: 0322-4875571
Email:111811016@umt.edu.pk




Reactive Dye:
Reactive dye is a dye that can react directly with the fabric. That means that a chemical reaction happens between the dye and the molecules of the fabric, effectively making the dye a part of the fabric. Reactive dyes have good fastness properties owing to the bonding that occurs during dyeing. Reactive dyes are most commonly used in dyeing of cellulose like cotton or flax, but also wool is dyeable with reactive dyes. 

 
REACTIVE DYE
MECHANISM
Covalent Bond Formation.
Good Affinity for the Cellulosic Fibers.
Smaller Molecule Size.

STRUCTURE
SOLUBILITY
Easily Soluble in Water.
Good Affinity for Water.
Polar Nature.
CHARGEABILITY
Negatively Charged.
Remove Negative  Charge by Adding Salts,
i.e. NaCl
SUBSTANTIVITY
Good Substantivity for the Fibers.
High Degree of Fixation Efficiency.
pH Range: 7 - 11
FASTNESS PROPERTIES
Washing    : Good   
Rubbing  : Moderate
Lightening   : Good
Chemical  :  Stable
Perspiration: Good
APPLIANCES
They are Applied to Cellulosic, Proteinic and Polyamide Fibers;
 i.e. Cotton, Wool.
COLOUR RANGE
Gamete Range of Colors.
Brighter Shades.
All Colors are Achievable.
ENVIRONMENT BEHAVIOUR
Non-Environmental Friendly.
Carcinogenic Dye.
COST
U.S: 0.5 - 1.8 $/Kg.  
Cheap.

Direct Dye:
Direct dye is a dye used in a process in which dye molecules are attracted by physical forces at the molecular level to the textile. The amount of this attraction is known as "substantivity": the higher the substantivity the greater the attraction of the dye for the fiber. So it is called substantive dye.
 

DIRECT DYE
MECHANISM
Hydrogen Bonding.
Wander Wall’s Forces   between Fiber Surface and Dye Molecule.
Larger Molecule Size.
STRUCTURE
SOLUBILITY
Soluble in Water.
Good Affinity.
Polar Nature.
CHARGEABILITY
Carry Negative Charge.
Discharge by Adding Salts,
i.e. Na2SO4 , CuSO3
SUBSTANTIVITY
Moderate Substantivity for the Fiber because Larger Size of Molecule.
pH Range: 10 - 11
FASTNESS PROPERTIES
Washing      :   Weak  
Rubbing       :   Poor
Lightening    :    Good
Chemical      :     Poor
Perspiration : Average
APPLIANCES
They are Applicable on Cellulosic and Proteinic  Fibers;
i.e. Viscose, Silk.
COLOUR RANGE
Large Range of Colors.
Dull and Darker Shades.
All Colors are Achievable.
ENVIRONMENT BEHAVIOUR
Non-Environmental Friendly.
Carcinogenic Dye.
COST
U.S: 1.5 – 5 $/Kg    
Cheap

Disperse Dye:
Disperse dyes are the only water insoluble dyes that dye polyester and acetate fibers. Disperse dye molecules are the smallest dye molecules among all dyes. A disperse dye molecule is based on an azobenzene or anthraquinone molecule with nitro, amine, hydroxyl, etc. groups attached to it. 

DISPERSE DYE
MECHANISM
Wander Wall’s Forces.
Affinity for Fibers.
Attraction between Fiber Surface and the Dye Molecule.
STRUCTURE
SOLUBILITY
Non-Soluble in Aqueous.
Non-Polar Nature.
CHARGEABILITY
Neutral Charge.
Penetrate Because of Transition State of Synthetic Fibers.
SUBSTANTIVITY
Substantivity is Less because of Non-Polar Nature.
pH Range: 4.5 – 5.5
FASTNESS PROPERTIES
Washing             : Good
Lightening          : Good
Crocking             : Good
Gas Fume Fade : Average
APPLIANCES
They are Applied to Synthetic Fibers;
i.e. Acetate, Triacetate, Polyester, Nylon and Acrylic.
COLOUR RANGE
Wide Range of Colors.
Bright and Lighter Shades.
Major Colors: Pale Yellow and Blue. 
ENVIRONMENT BEHAVIOUR
Non-Environmental Friendly.
Carcinogenic Dye.
COST
U.S: 2.50 – 3.00 $/Kg
Cheap       

Vat Dye:
Vat dyes are an ancient class of dyes, based on the natural dye, indigo, which is now produced synthetically. Vat dyeing is a process that refers to dyeing that takes place in a bucket or vat. Most vat dyes, which require a reducing agent to solubilize them, are less suitable than fiber-reactive dyes for amateurs. 

 
VAT DYE
MECHANISM
Vat Process:
 {Converting Water-Insoluble  to  a   Water-Soluble}.
Red ox Reaction.
Reducing Agents provide Attraction for the Fibers.
STRUCTURE
SOLUBILITY
In-Soluble in Water.
Adding Reducing Agents to become Soluble.
CHARGEABILITY
Negatively Charged.
Alkali is Used for Removing Charge.
SUBSTANTIVITY
Substantivity is good for Cellulosic Fibers.
High Fixation because of Reducing Agents.
pH Range :  12 - 15
FASTNESS PROPERTIES
Washing        :  Weak
Lightening      :  Good
Crocking         : Poor
Chemicals       : Average
Perspiration   : Good
APPLIANCES
They are Applied to Cellulosic and Proteinic Fibers; i.e. Viscose Rayon, Wool.
COLOUR RANGE
Large Range of Colors.
Dark Shades Ability.
Major Colors: Indigo, Green and Black. 
ENVIRONMENT BEHAVIOUR
Non-Environmental Friendly.
Cancer Causing Dye.
COST
U.S: 9.9 – 13.98 $/Kg
Average         


REFERENCES:

  1. http://www.pburch.net/dyeing/remazol_black5.gif
  2. http://www.pburch.net/dyeing/dyeblog/C1845207367/E20070320194204/Media/MFCD00003946.GIF.jpg
  3. http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/price/disperse.gif
  4. http://www.tasanet.com/Files/UploadedImages/83/Images/Photo.jpg
  5. http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/01/chemical-structure-of-reactive-dyes.html
  6. http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2011/02/defination-classification-application_2111.html
  7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disperse_dye
  8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vat_dye
  9. http://www.amazon.com/Jacquard-Procion-Fiber-Reactive-black/dp/B001I117EI
  10. http://www.pburch.net/drupal/?q=node/561
 

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