An Overview of Ring Spinning Machine/Ring Frame

An Overview of Ring Spinning Machine
Author: Alamgir Hossain
Dept. of Textile Engineering
Daffodil International University

Ring Spinning Machine:
The ring spinning machine was first invented in 1828 by the American Thorp. In 1830, another American scientist, Jenk, contributed the traveler rotating on the ring. There have been many development has done in ring spinning machine for the last years but the basic concept remained unchanged.

Some other modern spinning systems:
  1. Open end rotor spinning system
  2. Air Jet spinning system
  3. Friction spinning system
  4. Wrap spinning system
Advantage of Ring Spinning System:
  1. Any type of material (fibre) can be spun
  2. Wide range of count can be processed
  3. It delivers a yarn with optimum characteristics.
  4. Idealized twisting system
  5. It is uncomplicated and easy to operate
  6. Higher yarn strength can be achieved
Disadvantages of Ring Spinning System:
  1. Low production
  2. Machine generates more heat
In ring spinning machine twisting and winding are done simultaneously. That’s why the power consumption is higher.

Major manufacturer of ring frame:
  1. Lakshmi Machinery Works Limited, India
  2. Toyoda Textile Machinery , Japan
  3. Rieter Machine Works Limited, Switzerland
  4. Suessen Gmbh, Germany
  5. China Textile Machinery Group co. Limited, china
Operations involved in ring frame:
  1. Creeling
  2. Drafting
  3. Twisting
  4. Winding
  5. Building
  6. Doffing
Function of ring frame:
  1. Draft the roving until the required fineness is achieved
  2. Twist the drafted strand to form yarn of required count and strength
  3. Winding the twisted yarn on to the bobbin for suitable storage, transportation and further processing.
Drafting system:
A) Regular drafting without apron- 
  1. Conventional 3 over 3 drafting system
  2. Improved drafting system
B) Apron drafting 
  1. Single Apron- a. Saco Lowel Drafting, b. Improved system
  2. Double apron- a. Casablanca’s drafting system, b. SKF drafting system
Some important models of SKF drafting system:
  • SKF PK-211
  • SKF PK-220
  • SKF PK-225
  • SKF PK-235
  • SKF PK-255
  • SKF PK-265
  • SKF PK-2025
Types of drafting system: 
There are commonly two types of drafting system are used in ring frame:
  1. Spring loaded drafting system or Pendulum arm. example: SKF PK 2025 or Texparts 2035
  2. Pneumatic drafting system: SKF PK 3025
Difference between pneumatic and pendulum arm drafting system:

Pneumatic drafting system
Pendulum arm
1. Loaded by pneumatic pressure i.e. compressed air 
1. Loaded by spring
2. Uniform pressure is applied to all drafting rollers
2. Applied pressure in all drafting zones is not uniform
3. Consistent yarn quality is achieved
3. Consistent yarn quality is not achieved
4. Modern drafting system
4. conventional system

Various components of Ring Frame

Thread guide:
It is a yarn guide made by bending a wire named snail wire. Snail wire may be different in types like p-shaped wire

  1. Its main function is to guide the yarn thus maintain the security of the yarn.
  2. It prevents yarn collision with adjacent yarns.
  3. It surface should be smooth to prevent rubbing of yarn. Rubbing creates yarn hairiness.
The spindle is the main part of a ring frame which helps in twisting, winding simultaneously. Sometimes, spindle referred as ‘heart of spinning’. It hold the bobbin, somewhat loosely but tight enough to prevent slippage.
Functions of spindle:
  1. Twisting and winding is performed by spindle.
  2. It holds the bobbin.
  3. The capacity of ring frame is mainly determine by the number of spindle.
Different parts of spindle:
The parts of spindle are given below:-
  • Spindle blade
  • Wharve
  • Bolster
  • Lock
  • Bearing
  • Bolster cage
The last three parts help the spindle to fix at the right place and work properly.

The ring are made of low carbon steel i.e. soft steel or ceramic in the form of a bar which modeled into ring shaped either by bending and welding or by pressing by means of dies and then the stock is given the desired projection term as ring flange.

There are some important functions of ring. These are given below:-
  1. Ring guides the circular run of the traveler.
  2. It also helps in twisting by means of running of the traveler.
  3. It also acts as a track of traveler.
Figure: Ring cups
Classification of ring:
A) According to origin or element:- i. Metallic ring, ii. Ceramic ring
B) According to number of flange:- i. Single flange ring, ii. Double flange ring

Relation between bobbin dia and Ring dia:
B= 0.39R
Where B= Bear bobbin dia and R= Ring dia.

The path of traveler on the ring is called flange. It may be single or double.

Flange width: 
The term flange width express the difference the outer diameter and inner diameter of a ring. Flange width is expressed in flange no.

Flange width= (Flange no. + 3)/32 inch

Flange no.
Flange width (mm)

Traveler is the most tinny and simple mechanical element in ring frame which carries the most important function like simultaneous twisting, winding, thread guide etc.

Function of traveller:
Traveler does some important in ring frame. These are mentioned below:-
  1. Twisting on the drafted strand of fibre.
  2. Winding of the yarn on the bobbin.
  3. Maintain winding tension of the yarn by the frictional resistance between the ring and the traveler.
  4. It acts as a guide for yarn on the way to be wound on the bobbin.
Figure: Travelers
Traveler speed and its effects: 
Traveller does not have a drive of its own. It drags along behind the spindle. Since the spindle rotates at a high speed, a high contact pressure is generated between the ring and traveler during winding, mainly due to centrifugal force. The pressure introduces strong frictional forces which in turn lead to significant generation of heat. It is the important problem of ring/traveler.

The front roller delivers a certain length of yarn. That’s why length wound up must corresponds to the difference in peripheral speed of traveler and spindle. The speed difference is due to lagging of the traveler relative to the spindle.

Parts of traveller: 
There are three parts of a traveller. They are given below:-
  • Bow
  • Horn
  • Flange
Types of traveller: 
Travelers can be classified into following two ways:-

A) According to shape:-
  • C – traveller
  • Elliptical traveller
B) According to the X-section of wire:
  • Round traveller
  • Flat traveller
  • Semi-circular traveller
Specification of traveller: 
A ring traveler is specified by the followings-
  1. Traveller no.: 1, 2, 3, 1/0, 2/0, 3/0 etc.
  2. Cross section of the wire and shape
  3. Flange no.
  4. Surface finish- Stainless steel made,Carbon finish,Nicle finish etc.
  5. Type of materials etc.
Notation of traveller: 
A traveller can be notified as follows-
  • 3/0 MS/hF
  • 5/0 MS/FF
  • 7/0 HI-NI/ hf
3/0- Traveller number
MS- Mild steel
Hf- Half flange
FF- Full flange
HI-NI- High Nicle Finish
Traveller Number or size of traveller: 
Here, if the weight of 10 traveller is 10 grains then the number of those traveller is 1 and so on.

Recommended traveler no. for various yarn counts:

Count (Ne)
Traveller No.

Force acting on traveler:
  1. Traveller weight
  2. Frictional force between ring and traveler
  3. Centrifugal force
  4. Balloon tension
  5. Winding tension
Rubber Apron is made of synthetic rubber material, with excellent wear-resistance/oil-resistance/ageing-resistance and smooth surface. In addition, it is of good stability, flexibility & wide application. It is used in drafting system of ring frame and some other modern drafting system in spinning machine. It contains cradle for guiding its direction of length.
Figure: Rubber apron
Rubber cot:
It is one type of synthetic rubber material which is used in top rollers of ring frame drafting system. The rubber cots also used on drawing frames, combing machines & spinning frames. Its hardness can be varied. The hardness of rubber cots is expressed by degree. Generally harder cots are used in the back rollers and softer rollers are used in front rollers.

Hardness ranges are given below-
  • Soft: 60° to 70° Shore
  • Medium: 70° to 90° shore
  • Hard: above 90° shore
80° to 85° shore are mostly used at the back roller and 63° to 65° shore at front roller.
Figure: Rubber cots
Yarn realization:
It is the term used to denote the percentage of yarn produced from given weight of raw cotton. It depends on waste extraction.

Yarn realization% = (92-Z), for carded yarn

= (95-Z)(1-C/100)-3, for combed yarn

Where, Z = trash extracted (%) in process stages
C= comber noil%

Factors considered for selection of a traveler:
1. Yarn count: Higher the yarn count, lower will be the traveler weight.

2. Spindle Speed: If the spindle speed is high, then the yarn tension will be high. So lighter traveler should be used to minimize tension. 

3. Ring dia: For same spindle speed and count, with the increase of ring diameter yarn tension as well as frictional area increases. So traveler should be lighter. 

4. Empty bobbin dia: When empty bobbin dia decreases, winding angle decreases resulting a higher yarn tension. So a light traveler should be used. 

5. Lift of bobbin: If the lift of bobbin increases yarn tension will be higher. So traveler weight should be less. 

6. Cross section of traveler: We know, if frictional area increases, lighter traveler should be light.
  • For flat frictional area increases, traveler weight decreases.
  • For semi circular, frictional area decreases, traveler weight increases.
  • For circular, frictional area decreases, traveler weight increases.
Some important information:
Usually used ring diameter: 33, 36, 38, 40, 42, 45 mm
Ring cup diameter: Empty bobbin dia. = 2:1 or 2.5:1
bobbin length = 5 x Ring Diameter
Bobbin lift = Bobbin length – 20mm

Draft ranges in ring spinning: 
Higher draft usually causes the reduction in yarn quality. The following draft limits have been established for practical.
  • Carded yarn (Cotton) : up to 35
  • Carded blended: up to 40
Combed cotton and blended yarns
  • Of medium fineness: up to 40
  • Of fine yarn: up to 45
  • Synthetic fibres: up to 45 (~50).
Break draft: 
Total draft of a ring frame is limited. Since the main draft should not exceed its limit, a additional draft is implied in the back zone (between back and middle roller). This draft facilitates the main draft and known as break draft.

Normally twisted roving and total drafts up to 40: break draft should be 1.1-1.4
Strongly twisted roving: break draft should be 1.3-1.5
When total draft exceeds 40, break draft: 1.4-2.

Recent development of ring frame:
  1. Improved drafting system
  2. Higher no. of spindle (up to 1008)
  3. Auto doffing
  4. Auto piecing
  5. Higher draft range (more than 100)
  6. Grooved T-in cylinder
  7. Inverter motor device
  8. Gearing in oil bath
  9. Tangential belt drive
  10. Data collection system (Ring Data)
  11. Roving stop motion etc.
Count and TM:

Count (Ne) – Woven yarn
TM (Twist Multiplier)
Above 80
Knitted Yarn:
3.6-3.8 (generally

We know,
TPI = TM Öcount (for indirect system)
TPM = TM/Öcount (for direct system)

Why actual production always less then calculated production:
Reasons are:
  1. Electrical and mechanical problem
  2. Creeling problem
  3. Roving breakage
  4. Doffing problem
  5. Piecing problem
  6. Power failure
  7. Worker negligence etc.
Different types of wastages of spinning mill:
There are various types of wastages which are found in spinning mill during the processing of raw cotton. About 12-13% wastages are produced for card process and 25-30% wastage are produced for combed process. The names of different wastages are given below:
  1. Blow room (waste= 3%) i. Dropings-2 ii. Lap waste etc.
  2. Carding (waste= 4%) i. Dropings-1 ii. Sliver waste iii. Vacuum waste
  3. Draw frame (waste= 0.5%)i. sliver waste
  4. Lap former (waste=0.5%) i. lap waste ii. Sliver waste iii. Vacuum waste
  5. Comber (waste= 12-18%) i. Noils ii. lap waste iii. Sliver waste
  6. Simplex (waste= 0.5%) i. Roving waste ii. Sliver waste
  7. Ring Frame (waste= 2-3%) i. Pneumafil ii. Hard waste ii. Sweeping iv. Vacuum waste
  8. Winding section(waste=1%) i. Hard waste
Break in / running in: 
If we use metal ring we cannot go to the production directly. To make the ring ready for production it’s surface should must be smooth and for this reason we have to run the machine and change the traveler in interval of time. The initial running of traveler on ring to make it smooth is called break in or running in. 

Published by
S.M. Hossen Uzzal
B.Sc. in Textile Technology
Monno Fabrics Ltd. Manikgonj
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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