Fancy Yarn | Types and Classification of Fancy Yarns | Basic Principle of Fancy Yarn

Fancy Yarn:
Yarn refers to a structure composed of continuous length of interlocked fibers. They are suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and rope making. However, fancy yarn deviates from the normal yarns. These deviations occur mainly due to introduction of deliberate decorative discontinuities in the form of colour, structure or both. The size and value of the market for fancy yarn is negligible. However, fancy yarns appear mainly in high value items, so their small volumes cannot be ignored. The fancy yarn gives a fancy touch to the fabrics to a broad range of end uses. Significant demand for the fancy yams is the ladies and children outerwear.
Fancy yarn
The basic profiles of the fancy yarns are Spiral, Gimp, Slub, Knob, Loop, Cover, Chenille and Snarl yarns. The fancy effect can be optioned with two ways:
  1. By twisting and or doubling technique
  2. With spun effect by means of fibres. The effects may be randomized and regular effects.
Basic Principle of Fancy Yarn:
A ground (core) component, an effect component and a binder in a fancy yarn are shown in the following figure. To obtain structural effect, longer length of effect component, relative to ground component must be present to form the required effect. Twisting of the effect component on to the ground component will produce aesthetic effect.

Fig: Basic components of Fancy yarn
The basic principle is therefore to feed the ground and effect component at different speeds in to the twisting element. The percentage ratio of the effect component to the ground component is called over feed ratio.

Fancy Yarn Manufacturing Systems:

The above figure shows the fancy yarn manufacturing system .The classification is made based on the twisting, brushing and spinning process.

Classification of Fancy Yarns:
There are four main criteria recognized for the classification of fancy yarns. They are,
  1. Type of raw material used for effect making
  2. Number of Ground and Effect making material components
  3. Method of manufacture
  4. Type of Effect produced
  5. End use of fancy yarns
Classification of fancy yarns is done according to the type and form of material used for effect making. Type of material used for effect making refers basic material of the components, viz; cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon, blend etc. Whereas form of material refers forms of components used for the intended purpose. The components can be not only yarns made from staple fibers or filaments but also the lengths of yarns and/or filament, fabric pieces made up of woven material or knitted material or non-woven material as well as the polymer cover for the decorative coating of core component. They can be tape/ ribbon, metallic yarns etc. added for decorative means. The number and type of components virtually change the structure and exterior of the fancy yarn. The number of the components can differ from one to six and more. The classification based on method of manufacturing basically deals with direct or indirect process of getting fancy effect. Direct group deals with production of fancy yarn in single step by specialized equipment, viz; twister for fancy yarn making, special knitting machine etc. Whereas, and indirect category does not use specialized equipment for the production of fancy yarn. The production delays by the number of machines in sequence. Fancy yarn produced by ring spinning system is the best example for this category. Following figure describes the classification of fancy yarn based on the type of effects. Grouping of fancy yarn is based on the type of effects earned. Mainly deals with the variation in the optical, structural and compound effect.

Figure: Classification of Fancy Yarns according to the type of the Effect
Types of Fancy Yarn:

Spiral Yarn:
Plying technique used here. Typically, two single yarns of different thickness and twist level are plied together with slight over feed of course yarn.

The spiral fancy yarn is a plied yarn with smooth spiralling of one component around the others. Delivering one or more of its components at a greater speed can produce fancy yarn with spirals, so the shorter length of the component forms the core, while the greater length of the components creates the spirals.

It shown in the following figure:
Fig . Structure of Spiral yarn structure
Gimp Yarn:
Both the plying technique and the hollow spindle process could be used to make this yarn. Using hollow spindle process two ground yarns on which the drafted ribbon can be made to buckle in to the form of wavy shape, a typical shown in the figure:
Fig. Structure of Gimp yarn
Loop Yarn:
The threading arrangement of the component yarns to form loops is similar to that of gimp shown in the following figure. The considerations to for the loop yarns are the type of fibers, level of twist applied and the percentage of over feed employed at the profile stage.
Fig .Structure of Loop yarns
Snarl Yarns:
This also produced by plying process. The profile component is a highly twisted yarns shown in the figure:
Fig.Structure of snarl yarn
Knob Yarns:
The knob yarns can be constructed by the joining or the plying system by using the over feed of 150-200%, but the profile is visually not as well as defined in the spinning process because a drafted ribbon is used as the profile component.

Knop yarn contains prominent bunches of its component arranged at regular or irregular intervals. Using rollers capable of being operated independently usually makes this fancy yarn: core component-intermittent delivery and effect component – continuous delivery. So the effect component joins the core and is gathered into bunch or knop by the insertion of twist.

The Knob yarn shown in the figure:
Fig. Structure of Knob yarns
Cover Yarn:
The cover yarns are made by plying process the threading arrangement is identical to the knob yarn. Two pair of rollers controlling the yarns are made to start stop as required. However instead of stopping, each pair of rollers will in turn slow to a speed that allows the other yarn to wrap around that fed by slowed rollers. The level of twist required is high in order of 1600t/m.A typical structure of the Cover yarn shown in the Figure:

Fig .Structure of Cover effect yarn
Slub Yarn:
The production of the ground and injected Slub yarns was considered this case the roving is replaced as a profile component, roving periodically stop and start accordingly to the required Slub length and spacing. The Slub thickness is determined by the roving count.

Fig.Structure of Slub yarn
Chenille Yarn:
This was made originally by the Leno weaving two weft yarns are placed between each crossing of the weft yarns. After weaving the weft ,length extended between the warp yarns is cut to produce the pile effect .this traditional Chenille yarn shown in the figure:
Fig . Structure of Traditional Chenille yarn
Market Potential of Fancy Yarns:
While considering the market for fancy yarns, we need to remember that these goods are not commodity items, and nor will they ever be. Their purpose is to add colour or texture, or both. So market value of fancy yarns will remain negligible with compared to the rest of the textile market. But due to the consequence of liberalization in trade with countries like China a great interest in fancy yarn area is noticed in textile market all over the world. Due to liberalization in fancy yarns sector trade between Europe and Asia, the main Asian producers of fancy yarns compete with each other to offer more and more sophisticated products.

Fancy yarns are special products of spinning with deliberately introduced irregular characteristics in either diameter, bulk or in colour. Products made from fancy yarns are not commodity items. Although market value of fancy yarns is negligible with compared to the rest of the textile market research and development in this area has become very important. This is mainly attributed to the value addition obtained in terms of fashion or function of the yarn. The production of fancy yarns has been differentiated and enriched in such a scale that makes almost impossible to categorize and standardize all the products. Regardless the explosion of the new fancy yarns products without the proper standardization procedure or at least classification, the process of evolution of yarns, in general, lasts, both in the context of the components and final products as well as trade.

Production of Fancy yarns is a combination of art and science. There is lot of scope for the innovators to develop new products in Textiles using Fancy yarns. Apart from the Domestic market, Export of fancy yarns, Fabrics and Garments may provide great Opportunities in future.

  1. Rameshkumar, C., Prakash, S.P., Kumar, S.J.K. and Anbumani, N. (2008). Wrap spinning for fancy and high performance yarns. The Indian Textile Journal, December, 15-26.
  2. Pouresfandiari, F. (2003). New method of producing loop fancy yarns on a modified open end rotor spinning frame. Textile Research J., 73, 209-215.
  3. Testore and Minero, Study on fundamental parameters of some Fancy yarns, Journal of Textile Institute-1988.

Published by:
S. M. Hossen Uzzal
B.Sc. in Textile Technology
Monno Fabrics Ltd. Manikgonj
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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