Factors Involved in Scouring | Chemicals Use and Their Purposes in Scouring Process

Scouring is almost invariably the first wet process applied to textile materials. The object is remove oils, fats, waxes, soluble impurities and any particulate or solid dirt adhering to the fibers. The process consists essentially of treatment with a detergent with, or without, the addition of an alkali. When soap is used a good supply of soft water is essential but this is of less importance with the synthetic detergents, which, now occupy such a prominent position.

After the cloth still contains fats and waxes (both natural and added), due to the presence of which the cloth becomes non-absorbent. These are removed from the cloth by scouring, also called kiering, kier-boiling, boiling out etc.

Factors Involved in Scouring Process:
There are a number of factors that affect scouring performance. When cleaning solid surfaces, five variables become involved that interact during scouring and they are as follows:
  1. The nature of the surface to be cleaned.
  2. The nature of the dirt or soil.
  3. The chemicals to be used.
  4. The nature of the water or solvent.
  5. The nature of the detergent or soap.
Chemicals Use and Their Purposes in Scouring Process: 

Neutralize acidic materials, saponify glycerides (Waxes and Oils,) and solubilize silicate.
Sodium Silicate
Penetrate and break down lignins in motes.
Reduces surface tension and minimize interfacial tensions.
Emulsify oils, fats, and waxes; remove oil borne stains; suspend materials after they have been removed.
Chelating(Sequestering agent)
Deactivate metal ions.
Cause detergents to become increasingly effective.
Assist emulsification by dissolving oily materials.
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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