Finishing Faults/Defects | Different Types of Textile Finishing Faults/Defects with Their Causes

Fabric Finishing:
A series of processing operations applied to gray fabrics to enhance their appearance and hand, properties and possible applications. 
  • Play a fundamental role for the commercial excellence of the results of textiles. 
  • The most simple form of finishing is the ironing or pressing on the fabric. 
  • In finishing , the fabric is subjected to mechanical and chemical treatment in which its quality and appearance are improved and its commercial value enhanced.  
  • Physical finishing techniques (dry finishing processes) or chemical finishing methods (wet finishing) are used.
Finishing defects
Functional finish: Wear ability, Hand, Mechanical resistance, Easy care, Wet ability, Wash ability, Deformability, Anti bacterial, Anti fungal, Soil-proof and Fire-proof ability.

Aesthetic finishes: Aesthetic looks

Finishing Defects:
The defects which are occurred in finishing process are enlisted below:
  1. Unwanted marks on fabric
  2. Decolorized patch on fabric
  3. Pin holes
  4. Sanforize Pucker
  5. Bowing
  6. Pilling
  7. Water Spots
  8. Cuts or Nicks
  9. Seam Tears
  10. Soil
  11. Streaks
  12. Inadequate Pressing
  13. Pressing Producing Shine on Fabric
  14. Loose Threads
  15. Askewed or Bias
  16. Folding Defects
Unwanted marks on fabric:
Oily stains with dust adhered to surface which makes the stains more prominent and difficult to remove, due to contact with oil or grease covered exposed machine parts, careless handling could be another cause.

Decolorized patch on fabric:
Caused due to
  • Chemical spillage on fabric.
  • Localized excess bleaching.
  • Localized excess enzyme wash.
  • Can be result into weakening of the fabric.
Pin holes :
  • Holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through stenter frame.
  • Major defect if pin holes extend into body of fabric far enough to be visible in the finished product.
Sanforize Pucker :
  • Results from uneven wetting out on sanforize.
  • Usually caused by defective spray heads.
  • Fabric will appear wavy or puckering when spread on cutting table.
  • Difficult to detect during inspection on inspection machine with fabric under roller tension.
Bowing :
  • Usually caused by finishing.
  • Woven filling yarns lie in an arc across fabric width; in knits the course lines lie an arc across width of goods.
  • Establish standards of acceptance.
  • Critical on stripes or patterns; not as critical on solid color fabrics.
  • Pilling is a common fabric defect occurring on knitted and woven fabrics.
  • In producing a yarn, long fibers tightly-twisted produce a serviceable yarn. When short stable fibers are mixed into the yarn the result is a yarn that will not hold together. The short staple fibers will separate from the yarn and curl up in a ball, forming what is referred to as a pill.
  • Pilling is accentuated by the friction of normal wear, washing and routine dry cleaning.
Water Spots :
  • Usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying; color migrates leaving blotchy spots.
Selvage Torn : 
  • Usually caused by excessive tension while processing through stenter frames.
Cuts or Nicks :
  • Caused by indifferent handling of scissors. snips or mechanical trimmers.
Seam Tears :
  • Frequently caused by the turning equipment used to reverse garments in finishing.
Soil :
  • Caused by oil, grease or dirt. Often times originating from a dirty work area or machinery not properly cleaned
Streaks :
  • Markings caused by some types of turn boards or defectively finished trimming.
Inadequate Pressing :
  • Caused by excessive heat or pressure resulting in poor pleating, fullness or twisting of a seam on garment surface.
Pressing Producing Shine on Fabric:
  • Usually caused by excessive heat or incorrect type of pressing surface.
Loose Threads :
  • Loose threads will get wound on guide rollers forming ridgesin the processing machines and cause creases at these places.
  • Also loose threads can cause problems of Dye /Print transfer in a padding / Printing application
Askewed or Bias :
  • Condition where filling yarns are not square with wrap yarns on woven fabrics or where courses are not square with wale lines on knits.
Folding Defects :
  • Garment not Folded to Specifications
  • Garment not Folded with proper Materials:
  • Cardboard, tissue or other specified packaging materials omitted
  • Garments not Buttoned, Flys not
  • Closed, Incorrect Number of Pins 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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