Yarn Texturing Method | Different Texturing Methods of Yarn

Yarns used to create other than comparatively smooth textures in fabrics may be achieved by the following methods:

Modification in the Spinning Process of Single Yarns:
Various textures that results from modifications in the spinning process of simple yarns are identified by such terms as:
  1. Boucle yarn is one of the most widely used fancy yarns. It is characterized by an effect yarn forming tight loops that project from the body of the yarn at regular intervals.
  2. Slub yarns are made by varying the tension of yarn twist at regular intervals to produce soft, thick elongated low twist areas (slub).
  3. Snarl yarn is made by twisting at one time two or more yarns held at different tension. The effect yarn forms alternating unclosed loops along both sides of the core yarn.
  4. Spiral or Corkscrew yarn is made by twisting together two yarns of different thickness and twist, one soft and heavy and the other fine. The heavy yarn is fed faster than the fine yarn and winds around it in a spiral formation.
Modification of Thermoplastic Filament Yarns:
Variations in texture can be done by application of heat to the thermoplastic yarns by texturization or crimping. Texturization is the process by which filaments are distorted to impart crimp, curl, coil and loop structures along their length to achieve bulk, stretch and absorbency.

In texturization process, untextured yarns are heated to plastic condition after it was distorted by texturing element (spindle, gear, knife etc.). Then they are cooled to retain the required shape. Textured yarns are basically three types:
Bulk Yarn: Mainly Gear crimping, Stuffer box and Air Jet methods are used to produce these yarns of increased bulk but minimum stretch. These processes can increase bulk from 100 to 300 percent. They are used as carpet yarns and in sweater fabrics. The resultant fabrics are usually soft with some degree of bulk and warmth but are light in weight.
Stretch Yarn: False twist and Edge crimping method is used to produce this type of yarns having 300 to 500 percent elongation. In the first method, the yarn is twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to get a coiled yarn. In the second method, the hot filaments are drawn over a knife like edge, which flattens one side and causes the yarn to curl. They are used in swimsuits, lingerie, stockings, one-sized garments where a form-fitting resilience without pressure is required.
Modified Stretch Yarns: They are between the above two in stretch properties (about 10 to 15 percent). They are made in basically the same manner as stretch yarns except for a final step of heat-setting the yarn after the untwisting step.

Yarns Made From Bicomponent Fibers:
Bicomponent fibers are composed of two different polymers joined physically in a single filament. The components can be joined side by side or in a sheath-core structure. Due to chemical differences of the components each shrinks to a different degree when exposed to certain conditions such as heat or moisture. The difference in shrinkage causes a pulling of the yarn into a crimped conformation creating bulk and texture. 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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