Washing Chemicals | Different Types of Chemical Used in Washing Plant

Garment washing is a prime demand for garment buyers. So different types of garment washing are done according to buyer demand. Garment washing is a chemical based process. Various types of chemicals are used in washing plant. In this article I have given important chemicals those are frequently used in garment washing.
Garment washing chemicals
Fig: Garment washing chemicals
Washing Chemicals:
  • Enzyme
  • Detergent
  • Acetic Acid
  • Antistain
  • Bleaching powder
  • Sodium hyposulfite
  • Caustic Soda
  • Soda Ash
  • Sodium Bicarbonate
  • Potassium permanganate
  • Cationic / nonionic Flax softener
  • Micro Emulsion Silicon
  • Salt (sodium chloride)
  • Buffer
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Stabilizer
  • Fixing agent
  • Catanizer
  • Optical Brightener
  • Resin
  • Sodium Metabisulphite
  • Desizing agent
The action of enzyme during enzyme wash it hydrolysis the cellulose. At first it attacks the having projecting fibers and hydrolyzed them. Then it attacks the yarn portion inside fabric and party hydrolyzed the yarn portion. As a result color comes out from the yarn portion and faded affect is produced.

Chemical character is fatty alcohol polyglycol ether in an aqueous, glycolic solution. Detergent is widely applicable in the continuous and discontinuous pretreatment of all types of fiber and their blends. To remove impurities, mineral oil contamination and sizes from the garments.

Acetic Acid : 
Acetic Acid is used to neutralize the garments from alkaline condition and to control the pH value in wash bath.
Antistain is used to prevent the staining on weft yarn of the denim (white yarn), white pockets of garment, levels, and contachedfabrics of garment and increased the brightness of fabrics; it is also acts as anticreasingagent.
Bleaching Powder:
Bleaching powder is an oxidizing agent. It is used in washing plant for colourout from the denim garments. We can achieve deferent shade of colouron garment i.e. Dark, Medium, Light shade.
Sodium Hyposulphite:
Sodium hyposulphite is used to neutralize the garments from chlorine bleach.

Caustic Soda:
Caustic created the role in bleach technique with out colour change the garment and has a good cleaning power. It is work as fading affect/old looking affect come rapidly on garments.
Soda Ash:
Soda ash creates alkaline medium for the breakdown of pigment dye. Soda ash help to uniform bleaching action on bleach bath. It has a cleaning power and help colour fadding affect of garment. It is used also for colour fixing in dye bath.
Sodium Bicarbonate:
Sodium bicarbonate is used in washing plant in the bleach bath with bleaching powder for Denim Light shade because easily color out with in shot time. As a result production increase and costing is low.
Potassium Permanganate:
Potassium permanganate is used in Acid wash with Punic stone for colour out from the garments. It is used also spray chamber by nozzle for colour out (whitish affect) from the garments.

Flax Softener (Cationic, non ionic):
Softener is used to make the garments treated textiles a surface feel that is both sickly and soft and also provides excellent lubricating properties.

Micro Emulsion Silicon:
Amino Silicon is a textile finishing agent consisting mainly of amino modified silicon. When applied on fabrics, it gives durable softness, lubricity, elastic handle, antipilling, dimensional stability, tear resistance and fabric to be cut and sewn more easily allows and improving wear and easy care properties.

Sodium Chloride (Salt):
It helps to exhaust dye in to the fiber
Buffer :
Buffer is used in washing plant for pH control of enzyme bath, softener bath, desizingbath.
Hydrogen Peroxide:
Hydrogen peroxide creates the prime role in bleach wash technique. In alkaline medium, hydrogen peroxide breaks up and gives some perhydroxhylion, which discolourthe colouringmaterials and as a result faddingaffect is developed. Hydrogen peroxide is used in scouring, bleaching bath for white/ready for dyeing of gray fabric garments. It is used also neutralized the garment from alkaline condition.
Hydrogen peroxide is work a good condition at temperature above 90°c, when temperature raise to 90°c then break the Hydrogen peroxide. Stabilizer is used to protect break the hydrogen peroxide and peroxide works in bath smoothly.
Fixing Agent:
Fixing agent is used for unfixed dye to fix on fabrics, when fabric colour will be proper fixing then colour fastness & rubbing fastness will be increased.
Catanizer is used in pigment exhaust method processing. Pigment is color not dyestuff. Pigment colours have no affinity to fabric when catanizer is used in fabric then increase the affinity between pigment colour & fabrics.

Optical Brightness:
Two types of optical brightener are used in the washing plant –a) Red brightener. b) Blue brightener. Mainly optical brightener is used for improve the brightness of garments.

Resin is high efficiency textile resin based on etherified dimethylolglyoxalin monoureineurea. Resin is used for the creation of semi-permanent creases in denim and other cellulose fabrics. It is used also cotton and polyester fabric. Fabric retains soft handle after washing.
Sodium Metabisulphite:
Sodium metabisulphite is used in the washing plant to neutralized the garment from potassium permanganate.

Desizing Agent:
Desizing agent is used to remove mainly starches, cmc, waxes, fats pectin’s, minerals & unfixed indigo dye from denim, twills, poplin & canvas fabrics etc.

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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