Some Important Parameters of Water for Textile Wet Processing Industry

Some Important Parameters of Water
Color : 
Color normally indicates the presence of soluble and suspended matter , which affects the textile wet processing . The color of water is measured in terms of Hazen units, by comparing it with a color of a standard solution. A Hazen unit is the color produced by dissolving 1 ppm platinum in the form of chloroplatinic acid , in the presence of 2 ppm cobalt chloride.

Turbidity is caused by the scattering of light by suspended matter which may be organic or inorganic in nature. The turbidity of water is measured against a standard solution having a standard turbidity value 1000 units.

pH is the measure of H+ ions concentration , its value indicates the nature of water ,such as neutral , acidic or alkaline. .pH of less than 7 indicates acidic , neutral at 7 and alkaline when above 7. The pH scale is having value from 0 to 14.

Total Dissolved solids(TDS):
TDS comprise of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that is dissolve in water. The TDS is measured in ppm (mg/ltr).

Total Suspended Solids(TSS):
The suspended solids are discrete particles which are insoluble in water .These can be removed by filtration and are also measured in ppm.

The alkalinity is due to the presence of bicarbonates , carbonates or hydroxides. Alkalinity is divided into caustic alkalinity ( above pH 8.2) and total alkalinity above pH 4.5.( Bicarbonate and caustic alkalinity).

Most natural waters are buffered by a CO2 / HCO3 system. Corbonic acid is not fully neutralized until a pH of 8.2 and will not depress pH below 4.5. CO2 acidity is in the pH range of 8.2 to 4.5 , mineral acidity due to industrial waste is below pH 4.5.

Disadvantages of Hard or Unsuitable water usage in textile processing
  1. Formation of hard soaps with calcium and magnesium ions , which results into shade change.
  2. Carbonates of calcium and magnesium precipitate iron and aluminum mordant and substantive cotton dyestuffs.
  3. Some dyes got duller and even scum formation happens in the hard water.
  4. The metal ion impurities such as iron and copper , is a problem in the peroxide bleaching baths, iron is responsible for reducing the brightness of many dyes and is also objectionable in the washing off operations.
  5. Hard water is responsible for scale formation in the boilers.
  6. If temporary hardness is high , the soft scales are formed which causes corrosion.
Desirable Water Quality Parameters for Textile Wet Processing 
2.TDS 300 ppm
3.Color 5 Hazen No.
4.Residue on ignition 250 ppm
5.Total Hardness 30 ppm
6. COD nil
7. Turbidity nil
8.Suspended Solids nil
9.Copper 0.01 ppm
10. Iron 0.01 ppm
11.Chromium 0.01 ppm
12.Manganese 0.05 ppm
13.Aluminium 0.2 ppm
14.Chloride 150 ppm
15.Sulphate 150 ppm
16. Nitrite nil 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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