Different Types of Yarn Spinning System | Open-end Spinning | Ring Spinning, Rotor Spinning, Wet Spinning, Dry Spinning, Air-jet Spinning, Centrifugal Spinning, Flyer Spinning, Melt Spinning, Reaction Spinning, Flash Spinning, Draw-Spinning, Dispersion Spinning, Friction Spinning, Break Spinning

The present participle of the verb 'to spin' used verbally, adjectivally, or as a noun, meaning process or the processes used in the production of yarns or filaments.

The term may apply to:
(i) The drafting and, where appropriate, the insertion of twist in natural or staple man-made fibres to form a yarn;
(ii) The extrusion of filaments by spiders or silkworms; or
(iii) The production of filaments from glass, metals, fibre-forming polymers or ceramics.
Ring spinning
In the spinning of man-made filaments, fibre-forming substances in the plastic or molten state, or in solution, are forced through the holes of a spinneret or die at a controlled rate. There are five general methods of spinning man-made filaments i.e. dispersion spinning, dry spinning, melt spinning, reaction spinning, and wet spinning, but combinations of these methods may be used.

In the bast and leaf-fiber industries, the terms 'wet spinning' and 'dry spinning' refer to the spinning of fibres into yarns in the wet state and in the dry state respectively.

Open-end Spinning;
Break Spinning:
A spinning system in which sliver feed stock is highly drafted, ideally to individual fibre state, and thus creates an open end or break in the fibre flow. The fibres are subsequently assembled on the end of a rotating yarn and twisted in. Various techniques are available for collecting and twisting the fibres into a yarn, the most noteworthy being rotor spinning and friction spinning.

Rotor Spinning:
A method of open-end spinning which uses a rotor (a high-speed centrifuge) to collect individual fibres into a yarn is known as Rotor spinning. The fibers on entering a rapidly rotating rotor are distributed around its circumference and temporarily held there by centrifugal force. The yarn is withdrawn from the rotor wall and, because of the rotation, twist is generated.

Friction Spinning:
A method of open-end spinning which uses the external surface of two rotating rollers to collect and twist individual fibres into a yarn is known as Friction spinning. At least one of the rollers is perforated so that air can be drawn through its surface to facilitate fibre collection. The twisting occurs near the nip of the rollers and, because of the relatively large difference between the yam and roller diameters, high yarn rotational speeds are achieved by the friction between the roller surface and the yarns.

Air-jet Spinning:
A system of staple-fibre spinning which utilizes air to apply the twisting couple to the yarn during its formation is known as Air-jet spinning. The air is blown through small holes arranged tangentially to the yarn surface and this causes the yarn to rotate. The majority of systems using this technique produce fasciated yarns, but by using two air jets operating in opposing twist directions it is possible to produce yarns with more controlled properties but of more complex structure.

Centrifugal Spinning:
A method of man-made fiber production in which the molten or dissolved polymer is thrown centrifugally in fibre form from the edge of a surface rotating at high speed. The term is also used to describe a method of yarn formation involving a rotating cylindrical container, in which, the yarn passes down a central guide tube and is then carried by centrifugal force to the inside of a rotating cylindrical container.

Dispersion Spinning:
A process in which the polymers that tend to an infusible, insoluble, and generally intractable character (e.g., polytetrafluoroethylene) are dispersed as fine particles in a carrier such as sodium alginate or sodium xanthate solutions is known as Dispersion spinning. These permit extrusion into fibers, after which the dispersed polymer is caused to coalesce by a heating process, the carrier being removed either by heating or by a dissolving process.

A process for spinning partially or highly oriented filaments in which the orientation is introduced prior to the first forwarding or collecting device.

Dry Spinning (man-made fiber production):
The spinning process involving conversion of a dissolved polymer into filaments by extrusion and evaporation of the solvent from the extrudate is known as Dry spinning.

Flash Spinning:
A modification of the accepted dry-spinning method in which a solution of a polymer is extruded at a temperature well above the boiling point of the solvent such that on emerging from the spinneret evaporation occurs so rapidly that the individual filaments are disrupted into a highly fibrillar form.

Flyer Spinning:
A spinning system in which yarn passes through a revolving flyer leg guide on to the package is known as Flyer spinning. The yarn is wound-on by making the flyer and spinning package rotate at slightly different speeds.

Melt Spinning (man-made fiber production):
The spinning process involving conversion of a molten polymer into filaments by extrusion and subsequent cooling of the extrude is known as Melt spinning.

Reaction Spinning (man-made-fiber production):
A process in which polymerization is achieved during the extrusion of reactants through a spinneret system.

Ring Spinning:
A spinning system in which twist is inserted in a yarn by using a revolving traveller is known as Ring spinning. The yarn is wound on since the rotational speed of the package is greater than that of the traveller.

Wet Spinning (man-made-fiber production):
The spinning process involving conversion of a dissolved polymer into filaments by extrusion into a coagulating liquid is known as Wet spinning. The extrusion may be directly into the coagulating liquid or through a small air-gap. In the latter case it may be known as dry-jet wet spinning or air-gap wet spinning.

About the Editor-in-Chief:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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