Classification of Fibers According to Dyeing Properties

Every type of fabric is manufactured by yarn and yarn is produced from different types of fiber. So we know the proper definition of fiber. A “fiber “is defined as any product capable of being woven or otherwise made into fabric. It is smallest visible unit of textile product. Fibers are the fundamental units used in making of textile yarns and later on into fabric. Thus fibers are the essential components and basic units and are an essential components for making yarns. These fibres are of many types.

Fibers are units of matter characterized by flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to thickness. Other necessary attribute for textiles are adequate strength and resistance to conditions encountered during wears, as well as absence of undesirable colour, and finally the property of dye ability.


Different textile fibers
Fig: Different textile fibers
In generally, the steps in the manufacture of fabrics from raw material to finished goods are as follows:
  • Fibre, which is either spun (or twisted) into yarn or else directly compressed into fabric.
  • Yarn, which is woven, knitted, or otherwise made into fabric.
  • Fabric, which by various dyeing and finishing processed becomes consumers goods.
In this article I will classify fibers according to dyeing properties.

Classification of Fibers According to Dyeing Properties:
Cellulosic
Linen
Jute
Ramie
Viscose rayon
Polysonic fiber
Lyocell/Tencel
Acetate
Triacetate
Protein
Wool
Goat fibre
Silk
Synthetic-polymer fibres
Cellulose acetates
Polyesters
Polyamides (nylons)
Polyacryliconitriles (acrylics)
Polyurethane elastic fibre (spandex/ lycra)
We can also classify fibers according to activities with acid dyes, basic dyes, cellulosic dyes and disperse dyes.

A. Fibers dyed with acid dyes in full depths:
  • Wool and other animal fibers
  • Silk
  • Nylon homopolymer
  • Acid-dyeable nylon variants
  • Polyurethane fibers
  • Acid-dyeable polypropylene
  • Acid-dyeable acrylic and modacrylic fibers
B. Fibers dyed with basic dyes in full depths:
  • Basic-dyeable acrylic and modacrylic fibers
  • Basic-dyeable nylon
  • Basic-dyeable polyester
C. Fibers dyed with cellulosic dyes in full depths:
  • Cotton
  • Viscose
  • Lyocell, modal and polynosic fibers
  • Linen and other bast fibers
D. Fibers dyed with disperse dyes in full depths:
  • Cellulose acetate
  • Cellulose triacetat
  • Polyester homopolymer
  • Deep-dye polyester variants
  • Poly (vinyl chloride) fibers

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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