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Water-jet Weaving Machine (Water Jet Loom) | Working Principle of Water Jet Loom

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Water-jet weaving machines were first developed in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s and Subsequently refined by the Japanese in the1960s.Water-jet weaving machines are Not used as frequently as air jets, but they are preferred for some types of fabrics. The process is unsuitable for yarns of hydrophilic fibers because the fabric picks up too much moisture. Water-soluble warp sizings are used on most staple warp yarns. Therefore, the use of water-jet looms is restricted to filament yarns of acetate, nylon, polyester, and glass; yarns that are non absorbent, and those that do not lose strength when wet. Furthermore, these fabrics come off the loom wet and must be dried. In this technique a water jet is shot under force and, with it, a weft yarn. The force of the water as it is propelled across the shed carries the yarn to the opposite side. This machine is economical in its operation. A water jet of only 0.1centimeter is sufficient to carry a yarn across a 48 inch shed. The amount of water required for each weft yarn is less than 2.0 cubic centimeters. Water-jet machines can reach speeds of 2,000 meters of picks per minute. The water-jet looms can produce superior high quality fabrics that have good appearance and feel.
Water jet loom
Both air and water jet weaving machines weave rapidly, provide for laying different colors in the weft direction, and produce uniform, high quality fabrics. They are less Noisy and require less space than most other types of weaving machines. They cause Minimal damage to warp yarns during the weaving operation, because the air or Water jets are less abrasive than moving metal parts.

The speeds of shuttle less weaving machines can be compared by measuring the Picks per minute(ppm)or the yards laid per minute (ypm) in weft insertion.In 1990, The top speed for a projectile weaving machine was 420 ppm with between 1000 and 1203 ypm weft insertion. Flexible rapier weaving machines operated at 524 ppm and rigid rapiers at 475ppm, laying weft at upto 1404 and 930ypm, respectively. Air jets could lay as many as 1200 ppm and water jets upto 1500 ppm, laying 2145 and 2360 ypm , respectively.

If a fabric 60 inches wide is woven on each machine at a density of 50 pice per inch, Approximately 84 yards of weft yarn would be needed to produce an inch of fabric. In theory, the projectile would produce approximately 8.4 inches of fabric per minute; the flexible rapier,10.5 inches; the rigid rapier, 9.5 inches; the air jet, 24 inches; and the water jet, 30inches.The slowest of the new machines could produce a yard of fabric in 4.3 minutes, and the fastest would take just 1.2 minutes. Seldom do weaving machines operate at full capacity, but even at 50percent efficiency such machines could produce a yard offabricevery2.5 minutes. 


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