Stone Washing of Garments | Object of Stone Washing | Procedure of Stone Washing

Stone Wash:
In order to accelerate the garment wash effect and to give garments an even more unique appearance and softer hand, abrasive stones were introduced to the wash bath. A variety of natural and synthetic stones are available for stonewashing with perhaps the most widely used being pumice or volcanic rock. As the stones are used, they slowly disintegrate, reducing the severity of the stonewash effect over a period of time. The stones not only abrade the fabric but also gradually abrade the inside of the rotary drum. A machine used for stonewashing should not be used to dye delicate articles or when abrasion would be detrimental to the fabric.

Stone washing machine
Object of Stone Washing:
  1. To create or produce irregular fading or old looking affect on garments.
  2. To remove dust, oil spot, impurities from the garments.
  3. For soft felling to wear the garments i.e; to improve softness.
  4. To achieve the buyer washing standard.
Procedure of Stone Washing:
1. Load stones into machine.
2. Load garments into machine (ratio usually 0.5 - 3.0 part weight stones:1 part weight garments).
3. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent. Liquor ratio approximately 5-8:1.
4. Rinse.
5. Refill and tumble with stones 30 to 90 minutes, depending upon desired effect. Liquor ratio 5-8:1 at 50-70◦C. Scouring additives can also be used.
6. Drain. Separate garments from stones (garments can be transferred to another machine).
7. Rinse.
8. Apply softener (garments can be transferred to another machine for softening).
9. Extract and unload.
10. De-stone and tumble dry.
11. Press, if required.

Softeners and/or lubricants can be added during steps three and five to reduce creasing potential. Steps 8, 9, and 10 may vary depending upon individual mill arrangement.


Stonewash with Chlorine:
By incorporating chlorine in the stonewash procedure, a color reduction of the indigo (or other chlorine sensitive dyestuff) is obtained. It is very important that any residual chlorine be removed before drying to prevent fiber degradation. This is accomplished by using an antichlor step with sodium bisulfite or hydrogen peroxide.


Working Procedure:
1. Load stones into machine.
2. Load garments into machine (ratio usually 0.5 - 3.0 part weight stones:1 part garments).
3. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent (liquor ratio approximately 10:1).
4. Rinse.
*5. Refill and add sodium or calcium hypochlorite.
6. Heat to 55◦C.
7. Tumble 15 minutes.
8. Add second portion of sodium or calcium hypochlorite.
9. Tumble 15 minutes, maintaining temperature of 55◦C.
10. Drain.
11. Rinse well.
12. Antichlor with sodium bisulfite or hydrogen peroxide.
13. Drain. Separate garments from stones (garments can be transferred to another machine).
14. Rinse well.
15. Apply softener.
16. Extract and unload.
17. De-stone and tumble dry.
18. Press, if required.

* Amount of sodium or calcium hypochlorite required will vary depending upon desired level of bleach down and the sensitivity of the color to chlorine. Each addition can range from 0.075% to 0.225% available chlorine. pH should be kept above 9.0, preferably 10.5-11.0. This is accomplished with the addition of soda ash with each addition of hypochlorite. 

 

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